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  • Author or Editor: Elizabeth M. Hardie x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of fentanyl citrate after IV or transdermal administration in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats with a mean weight of 3.78 kg.

Procedure—Each cat was given fentanyl IV (25 mg/cat; mean ± SD dosage, 7.19 ± 1.17 mg/kg of body weight) and via a transdermal patch (25 µg of fentanyl/h). Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by use of radioimmunoassay. Pharmacokinetic analyses of plasma drug concentrations were conducted, using an automated curvestripping process followed by nonlinear, leastsquares regression. Transdermal delivery of drug was calculated by use of IV pharmacokinetic data.

Results—Plasma concentrations of fentanyl given IV decreased rapidly (mean elimination half-life, 2.35 ± 0.57 hours). Mean ± SEM calculated rate of transdermal delivery of fentanyl was 8.48 ± 1.7 mg/h (< 36% of the theoretical 25 mg/h). Median steadystate concentration of fentanyl 12 to 100 hours after application of the transdermal patch was 1.58 ng/ml. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl < 1.0 ng/ml were detected in 4 of 6 cats 12 hours after patch application, 5 of 6 cats 18 and 24 hours after application, and 6 of 6 cats 36 hours after application.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, transdermal administration provides sustained plasma concentrations of fentanyl citrate throughout a 5- day period. Variation of plasma drug concentrations with transdermal absorption for each cat was pronounced. Transdermal administration of fentanyl has potential for use in cats for long-term control of pain after surgery or chronic pain associated with cancer. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:672–677)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of radiographic evidence of degenerative joint disease (DJD) in geriatric cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Population—100 cats > 12 years of age.

Procedure—One investigator reviewed radiographs and for each articulation (or group of articulations) that was visible assigned a grade of severity (0, 1, 2, 3) for DJD. Another investigator reviewed medical records and recorded signalment, environment, previous disease, diseases evident at time of radiography, FeLV vaccination and infection status, feline immunodeficiency virus serologic status, serum creatinine concentration, serum globulin concentration, and any other important findings. Associations between DJD of grade 2 or 3 and variables recorded from the medical record were determined.

Results—Radiographic evidence of DJD was evident in 90% of cats. Neurologic disease was associated with lesions in the lumbosacral portion of the vertebral column. Severe lesions were found in 17% of the elbow joints, but an underlying cause was not determined.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Degenerative joint disease was detected radiographically in most geriatric cats and may be an overlooked cause of clinical disease. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility that DJD is associated with neurologic signs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:628–632)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To document the signalment; history; clinical signs; clinicopathologic, diagnostic imaging, and surgical findings; perioperative complications; and long-term clinical results of ameroid ring constrictor (ARC) placement on single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSS) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—23 cats treated with an ARC on a single extrahepatic PSS.

Procedure—An ARC was placed surgically around the PSS. Portal pressure was measured prior to ARC placement, with complete temporary PSS occlusion, and after ARC placement. Cats were scheduled for recheck transcolonic portal scintigraphy 8 to 10 weeks after surgery. Follow-up information was obtained by telephone interview with the owners.

Results—An ARC was successfully placed in 22 of 23 cats. Intraoperative complications, consisting of PSS hemorrhage, occurred in 2 cats. Mean (± SD) portal pressure (n = 15) was 6.7 ± 2.9 mm Hg before PSS manipulation, 18.6 ± 7.7 mm Hg with complete temporary PSS occlusion, and 6.9 ± 2.7 mm Hg after ARC placement. Postoperative complications developed in 77% (17 of 22) of cats after ARC placement, and included central blindness, hyperthermia, frantic behavior, and generalized motor seizures. Perioperative mortality rate was 4.3% (1 of 23). Persistent shunting was identified in 8 of 14 cats. Overall, 75% (15 of 20) of cats had an excellent longterm outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of an ARC on single extrahepatic PSS in cats resulted in low surgical complication and perioperative mortality rates, but most cats did have substantial postoperative complications. Persistent shunting was common, although many cats with persistent shunting were clinically normal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220: 1341–1347)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of medical and surgical treatment in cats with ureteral calculi.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—153 cats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed. Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information.

Results—All cats were initially treated medically before a decision was made to perform surgery. Medical treatment included parenteral administration of fluids and diuretics to promote urine production and passage of the ureteral calculus and supportive treatment for renal failure. Ureteral calculi in the proximal portion of the ureter were typically removed by ureterotomy, whereas ureteral calculi in the distal portion of the ureter were more likely to be removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy. Ureterotomy could be performed without placement of a nephrostomy tube for postoperative urine diversion. Postoperative complication rate and perioperative mortality rate were 31% and 18%, respectively. The most common postoperative complications were urine leakage and persistent ureteral obstruction after surgery. Chronic renal failure was common at the time of diagnosis and continued after treatment, with serum creatinine concentration remaining greater than the upper reference limit in approximately half the cats. Twelve-month survival rates after medical and surgical treatment were 66% and 91%, respectively, with a number of cats dying of causes related to urinary tract disorders, including ureteral calculus recurrence and worsening of chronic renal failure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that medical and surgical management of ureteral calculi in cats are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Treatment can stabilize renal function, although many surviving cats will continue to have impaired renal function. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:937–944)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical, clinicopathologic, radiographic, and ultrasonographic abnormalities in cats with ureteral calculi.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—163 client-owned cats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information on signalment, history, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic testing and diagnostic imaging was obtained.

Results—The number of cats in which ureterolithiasis was diagnosed each year increased progressively during the study period. Clinical signs tended to be nonspecific and included inappetence, vomiting, lethargy, and weight loss. A combination of survey radiography and abdominal ultrasonography revealed ureteral calculi in 66 of 73 (90%) cats in which the diagnosis was confirmed at surgery or necropsy. Ultrasonography revealed that ureteral calculi were causing ureteral obstruction in 143 of 155 (92%) cats. One hundred thirty-four of 162 (83%) cats had azotemia, 84 of 156 (54%) had hyperphosphatemia, and 22 of 152 (14%) had hypercalcemia. Urinary tract infection was documented in 10 of 119 (8%). Fifty-eight of 76 (76%) cats with unilateral ureterolithiasis had azotemia and 33 (43%) had hyperphosphatemia, indicating impairment of renal function in the contralateral kidney or prerenal azotemia. Ultrasonographic imaging of the contralateral kidney in cats with unilateral ureteral calculi suggested that preexisting renal parenchymal disease was common in cats with ureterolithiasis. Ninety-one of 93 (98%) ureteral calculi contained calcium oxalate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that abdominal imaging should be performed in all cats with chronic nonspecific signs or with acute or chronic renal failure to rule out ureterolithiasis. Preexisting renal disease may be common in cats with ureteral calculi. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226: 932–936)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical outcome of permanent tracheostomy in cats with upper airway obstruction.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—21 cats.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information on history, signalment, clinical signs, results of preoperative clinicopathologic testing, cause of upper airway obstruction, surgical procedure, postoperative complications, and outcome.

Results—Causes of upper airway obstruction included neoplasia (squamous cell carcinoma [n = 6] or malignant lymphoma [2]), inflammatory laryngeal disease (5), laryngeal paralysis (4), trauma (3), and a laryngeal mass of unknown cause (1). Fourteen cats had dyspnea in the immediate postoperative period; dyspnea most often resulted from mucous plugs at the stoma or elsewhere in the respiratory tract. Eleven cats died, including 6 cats that died while hospitalized after surgery and 5 cats that died after discharge; 7 cats were eu-thanatized, most often because of progression of neoplasia; and 2 were still alive at the time of the study. The remaining cat was lost to follow-up after discharge from the hospital. Overall, median survival time for the 20 cats for which information was available was 20.5 days (range, 1 day to 5 years). Cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy because of inflammatory laryngeal disease were 6.61 times as likely to die as cats that underwent permanent tracheostomy for any other reason.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that permanent tracheostomy was an uncommon procedure in cats with upper airway obstruction that was associated with high complication and mortality rates.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the items (question topics) for a subjective instrument to assess degenerative joint disease (DJD)–associated chronic pain in cats and determine the instrument design most appropriate for use by cat owners.

Animals—100 randomly selected client-owned cats from 6 months to 20 years old.

Procedures—Cats were evaluated to determine degree of radiographic DJD and signs of pain throughout the skeletal system. Two groups were identified: high DJD pain and low DJD pain. Owner-answered questions about activity and signs of pain were compared between the 2 groups to define items relating to chronic DJD pain. Interviews with 45 cat owners were performed to generate items. Fifty-three cat owners who had not been involved in any other part of the study, 19 veterinarians, and 2 statisticians assessed 6 preliminary instrument designs.

Results—22 cats were selected for each group; 19 important items were identified, resulting in 12 potential items for the instrument; and 3 additional items were identified from owner interviews. Owners and veterinarians selected a 5-point descriptive instrument design over 11-point or visual analogue scale formats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Behaviors relating to activity were substantially different between healthy cats and cats with signs of DJD-associated pain. Fifteen items were identified as being potentially useful, and the preferred instrument design was identified. This information could be used to construct an owner-based questionnaire to assess feline DJD-associated pain. Once validated, such a questionnaire would assist in evaluating potential analgesic treatments for these patients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To evaluate use of an ameroid ring constrictor (ARC) for treatment for single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSSs) and identify factors associated with postoperative death, continued portosystemic shunting, and long-term outcome in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—168 dogs with a single extrahepatic PSS.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs that had a single extrahepatic PSS and were treated with an ARC were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, results of preoperative blood analyses and portal pressure measurements, PSS location, ARC size, postoperative complications, and postoperative scintigraphy results were recorded. Owners were interviewed 6 months to 6 years after surgery.

Results—Postoperative complications developed in 10% of dogs. Postoperative mortality rate was 7.1%. Predictive factors for postoperative death included high preoperative WBC count and postoperative complications. Twenty-one percent of dogs in which portal scintigraphy was performed 6 to 10 weeks after surgery had continued shunting. Predictive factors for persistent shunting included low preoperative plasma albumin concentration, high portal pressure after complete occlusion, and high portal pressure difference (postocclusion minus baseline). Clinical outcome in 108 dogs was classified as excellent (80%), good (14%), or poor (6%). Predictive factors for excellent long-term clinical outcome included high preoperative plasma albumin concentration, low preoperative leukocytosis, low portal pressure after complete occlusion, absence of postoperative seizures, and absence of continued shunting.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of an ARC for treatment for a single extrahepatic PSS resulted in low morbidity and mortality rates. Certain preoperative factors were associated with increased risk of postoperative death, continued portosystemic shunting, and long-term outcome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226: 2020–2030)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association