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  • Author or Editor: Elizabeth M. Charles x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate clinical response, pulmonary function, and adrenal gland response to incremental doses of beclomethasone dipropionate in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Design—Crossover trial.

Animals—8 horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Procedure—Horses randomly assigned to 4 groups were treated twice daily via aerosol administration of placebo or 500, 1,000, or 1,500 µg of beclomethasone dipropionate in a crossover design with a 10-day minimum washout period. Subjective assessment of airway obstruction, serum cortisol concentration, and maximum change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing (ΔPplmax) were determined daily prior to morning drug administration, and ΔPplmax was reevaluated 15 minutes after morning drug administration. Pulmonary resistance and dynamic compliance were determined at baseline and approximately 12 hours after the final treatment.

Results—An immediate treatment effect was not identified. Within 24 hours, ΔPplmax and airway obstruction were lower in horses receiving beclomethasone. Onset and magnitude of response was similar among the 3 beclomethasone dose regimens. Pulmonary resistance was improved only after administration of all 3 doses of beclomethasone, whereas dynamic compliance was improved after administration of 1,000 µg and 1,500 µg of beclomethasone. Reduction in serum cortisol concentration occurred with all 3 beclomethasone dose regimens; however, the magnitude of adrenal gland suppression was greater in horses receiving 1,000 or 1,500 µg of beclomethasone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-dose (500 µg) beclomethasone administration caused similar improvement in pulmonary function, compared with high-dose beclomethasone (1,000 and 1,500 µg), with the exception of dynamic compliance, and caused less suppression of endogenous cortisol production. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:359–364)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To characterize features and response to treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) associated with oral administration of etodolac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—65 cases obtained from a survey of veterinary ophthalmologists (group A) and 146 cases reported to Fort Dodge Animal Health (group B).

Procedures—Data analyzed included breed, sex, age, weight, dose and duration of etodolac administration, results of Schirmer tear test at the time of diagnosis and last follow-up, treatments, and response to treatments. Groups A and B were analyzed separately by use of forward stepwise logistic regression models developed to predict probability of complete remission or clinical improvement as a function of several variables.

Results—Most dogs developed severe KCS (84 eyes of 50 dogs [group A]; 111 eyes of 62 dogs [group B]). Resolution of KCS occurred in 7 of 65 (A) and 23 of 146 (B) dogs. No response to treatment was observed in 26 of 65 (A) and 27 of 146 (B) dogs. Fifty-one (A) and 52 (B) dogs had records that were sufficiently complete to use in models. In group B, dogs with etodolac treatment intervals < 6 months prior to the onset of KCS were 4.2 times as likely to have remission as were dogs with treatment intervals ≥ 6 months.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shorter duration of etodolac administration (< 6 months) was associated with improved outcome in 1 population of dogs. Monitoring of tear production should be considered prior to and during administration of etodolac in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci and staphylococci collected from environmental surfaces at a veterinary teaching hospital (VTH).

Design—Longitudinal study.

Sample—Samples collected from surfaces in 5 areas (emergency and critical care, soft tissue and internal medicine, and orthopedic wards; surgery preparation and recovery rooms; and surgery office and operating rooms) of a VTH.

Procedures—Selected surfaces were swabbed every 3 months during the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Isolates of enterococci and staphylococci were identified via biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated with a microbroth dilution technique. A subset of isolates was analyzed to assess clonality by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

Results—430 samples were collected, and isolates of enterococci (n = 75) and staphylococci (110) were identified. Surfaces significantly associated with isolation of Enterococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp included cages and a weight scale. Fourteen Enterococcus spp isolates and 17 Staphylococcus spp isolates were resistant to ≥ 5 antimicrobials. Samples collected from the scale throughout the study suggested an overall increase in antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium over time. Clonality was detected for E faecium isolates collected from 2 different surfaces on the same day.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although not surprising, the apparent increase in antimicrobial resistance of E faecium was of concern because of the organism's ability to transmit antimicrobial resistance genes to other pathogens. Results reported here may aid in identification of critical control points to help prevent the spread of pathogens in VTHs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate outcomes associated with an experiential leadership program (the Veterinary Leadership Experience [VLE]) among participants 1 year after program completion.


157 veterinary students and 61 veterinary professionals who participated in the 2015 or 2016 VLE.


Participants completed various instruments to assess emotional intelligence, psychological flexibility, resilience, and client-communication skills prior to (pretest) and 1 year after (posttest) attending the VLE; pretest and posttest findings were compared for all but client-communication skills, for which only posttest responses were analyzed. An additional posttest instrument assessed the impact that the VLE had on key knowledge areas (ie, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relational competence, communication skills, and conflict management skills) and overall impact.


1 year after completing the VLE, participants reported that the program had a high impact on all key knowledge areas; the impact on social awareness and overall impact was significantly higher for veterinary students than for veterinary professionals. Veterinary professionals reported a greater increase in emotional intelligence after program completion than did veterinary students. For each assessed client-communication skill, the percentage of veterinary professionals who reported increased confidence in that skill after program completion was lower than the corresponding percentage of veterinary students. Resilience and psychological flexibility scores did not increase after program completion.


Assessment of the effectiveness and long-term outcomes of experiential leadership programs is important to understanding whether such programs are having the intended effect. Veterinary students and veterinary professionals who were assessed 1 year after completing the VLE reported improvements in leadership skills foundational to the program.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association