Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Elizabeth L. Mumford x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Objective

To identify management factors affecting the risk of animals developing vesicular stomatitis (VS).

Design

Case-control study.

Animals

Horses, cattle, and sheep with suspected vesicular stomatitis on 395 premises in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona.

Procedure

Data were collected during the VS outbreak of 1997. Diagnosticians interviewed livestock owners and completed a supplemental questionnaire. Cases were defined as those premises that had a completed questionnaire and had ≥ 1 animal positive for VS. Control premises were all premises investigated that had a completed questionnaire and on which the animals had been tested but VS was not detected.

Results

Animals that had access to a shelter or barn had a reduced risk of developing VS (OR, 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.99). This effect was more pronounced for equine premises (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9). Conversely, during an adjusted analysis on equine premises, risk of developing disease was increased slightly where animals had access to pasture (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.7). On all premises where owners reported insect populations were greater than normal, odds of developing disease were significantly increased (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.47 to 4.47). Premises with animals housed < 0.25 miles from running water were more than twice as likely to have clinical signs of VS (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.32 to 5.0).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

These results support reports of others that suggest biting insects are a vector in VS virus transmission. Management practices to reduce exposure to biting insects might reduce the risk of VS. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1263–1268)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To report clinical and serologic findings in horses with oral vesicular lesions that were consistent with vesicular stomatitis (VS) but apparently were not associated with VS virus (VSV) infection.

Design—Serial case study.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedure—Horses were quarantined after appearance of oral lesions typical of VS. Severity of clinical signs was scored every 2 to 5 days for 3 months. Serum samples were tested for antibodies by use of competitive ELISA (cELISA), capture ELISA for IgM, serum neutralization, and complement fixation (CF). Virus isolation was attempted from swab specimens of active lesions.

Results—2 horses with oral vesicular lesions on day 1 had antibodies (cELISA and CF) against VSV; however, results of CF were negative by day 19. Five of the 6 remaining horses were seronegative but developed oral lesions by day 23. Virus isolation was unsuccessful for all horses.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Horses were quarantined for 75 days in compliance with state and federal regulations. However, evidence suggests that oral lesions were apparently not associated with VSV infection. The occurrence in livestock of a vesicular disease that is not caused by VSV could confound efforts to improve control of VS in the United States and could impact foreign trade.Vesicular stomatitis is of substantial economic and regulatory concern. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1399–1404)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine potential risk factors for vesicular stomatitis (VS) in Colorado livestock in 1995 and evaluate VS virus (VSV) exposure of Colorado livestock in 1996.

Design

Retrospective case-control study of VS risk factors and seroprevalence evaluation.

Sample Population

Premises included 52 that had VS-positive animals and 33 that did not have VS-positive animals during the 1995 epidemic, and 8 in the vicinity of premises that had VS-positive animals during the 1995 epidemic.

Procedure

Layout and management data for premises were collected during site visits in 1996. Signalment and management data were collected for animals from which samples were obtained, and samples were tested by serologic examination and virus isolation. The VSV seroprevalence rate was estimated for Colorado, using serum obtained for equine infectious anemia testing and from the Market Cattle Identification program in Colorado.

Results

At least 1 animal was seropositive for VSV. on 35 of 52 (67%) premises, and 71 of 228 (31 %) animals tested were seropositive for VSV Seroprevalence was 63 of 170 (37%) for horses and 8 of 54 (15%) for cattle. Seroprevalence of VSV in animals from nonstudy premises in Colorado in 1996 was estimated to be 1.1% in cattle and 0.8% in horses.

Clinical Implications

Overall VSV seroprevalence in Colorado livestock was less than seroprevalence in epidemic areas, and seroprevalence rates in epidemic areas were greater for horses than cattle. Results may indicate that some animals had subclinical VSV infection during epidemics and that animals may be exposed to VSV between epidemics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1265-1269)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To develop a system to monitor and detect acute infections of the upper respiratory tract (ie, nares, nasopharynx, and pharynx) in horses and to assess the association among specific viral infections, risk factors, and clinical signs of disease.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

151 horses with clinical signs of acute infectious upper respiratory tract disease (IURD) from 56 premises in Colorado.

Procedure

Health management data, blood samples, and nasal or nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained for 151 horses with clinical signs of acute IUBD. Of these horses, 112 had an additional blood sample obtained during convalescence and were considered to have complete sample sets. Samples were tested for evidence of respiratory tract infection by use of ELISA, virus isolation, and serologic testing of paired serum samples.

Results

Viral infections were identified in 65 horses with complete sample sets; influenza virus infection was identified in 43 horses, equine herpesvirus (EHV) infection in 18, and mixed influenza virus and EHV infections in 4. On 14 premises, samples were obtained from more than 1 affected horse. Viral infections were identified in horses on 11 of 14 premises. Equine herpesviruses were isolated from 10 horses. A relationship was not found between vaccination history and identification of EHV or influenza virus infections. An infection with EHV was less likely to be identified in horses with initial (acute) antibody titers > 1:16 to EHV.

Clinical Implications

Influenza virus (specifically, A/equine/2) was the most common virus associated with acute IURD. Use of multiple diagnostic tests and obtaining samples from more than 1 horse in an outbreak may improve detection of viral infections. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:385-390)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association