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Abstract

Objective—To assess pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of dexamethasone administered PO as a solution or powder, compared with properties of dexamethasone solution administered IV, in apparently healthy horses.

Animals—6 adult horses.

Procedures—Serum cortisol concentration for each horse was determined before each treatment (baseline values). Dexamethasone (0.05 mg/kg) was administered PO (in solution or powdered form) or IV (solution) to horses from which feed had or had not been withheld (unfed and fed horses, respectively). Each horse received all 6 treatments in random order at 2-week intervals; PO and IV administrations of dexamethasone were accompanied by IV or PO sham treatments, respectively. Plasma dexamethasone and serum cortisol concentrations were assessed at predetermined intervals.

Results—Maximum plasma dexamethasone concentration after PO administration of powdered dexamethasone in unfed horses was significantly higher than the maximum plasma concentration after PO administration of dexamethasone solution in unfed or fed horses. Mean bioavailability of dexamethasone ranged from 28% to 66% but was not significantly different among horses receiving either formulation PO in the unfed or fed state. After dexamethasone treatment PO or IV, serum cortisol concentrations were significantly less than baseline at 1 to 72 hours in unfed horses and at 2 to 48 hours in fed horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PO or IV administration of dexamethasone resulted in suppression of cortisol secretion in unfed and fed adult horses; the magnitude of suppression did not differ among treatment groups, and serum cortisol concentrations returned to baseline after 48 to 72 hours.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate clinical response, pulmonary function, and adrenal gland response to incremental doses of beclomethasone dipropionate in horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Design—Crossover trial.

Animals—8 horses with recurrent airway obstruction.

Procedure—Horses randomly assigned to 4 groups were treated twice daily via aerosol administration of placebo or 500, 1,000, or 1,500 µg of beclomethasone dipropionate in a crossover design with a 10-day minimum washout period. Subjective assessment of airway obstruction, serum cortisol concentration, and maximum change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing (ΔPplmax) were determined daily prior to morning drug administration, and ΔPplmax was reevaluated 15 minutes after morning drug administration. Pulmonary resistance and dynamic compliance were determined at baseline and approximately 12 hours after the final treatment.

Results—An immediate treatment effect was not identified. Within 24 hours, ΔPplmax and airway obstruction were lower in horses receiving beclomethasone. Onset and magnitude of response was similar among the 3 beclomethasone dose regimens. Pulmonary resistance was improved only after administration of all 3 doses of beclomethasone, whereas dynamic compliance was improved after administration of 1,000 µg and 1,500 µg of beclomethasone. Reduction in serum cortisol concentration occurred with all 3 beclomethasone dose regimens; however, the magnitude of adrenal gland suppression was greater in horses receiving 1,000 or 1,500 µg of beclomethasone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-dose (500 µg) beclomethasone administration caused similar improvement in pulmonary function, compared with high-dose beclomethasone (1,000 and 1,500 µg), with the exception of dynamic compliance, and caused less suppression of endogenous cortisol production. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:359–364)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T/SMX) on thyroid function in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy euthyroid dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were administered T/SMX (14.1 to 16 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 3 weeks. Blood was collected weekly for 6 weeks for determination of total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (fT4), and canine thyroid- stimulating hormone (cTSH) concentrations. Schirmer tear tests were performed weekly. Blood was collected for CBC prior to antimicrobial treatment and at 3 and 6 weeks.

Results—5 dogs had serum TT4 concentrations equal to or less than the lower reference limit, and 4 dogs had serum fT4 less than the lower reference limit after 3 weeks of T/SMX administration; cTSH concentrations were greater than the upper reference limit in 4 dogs. All dogs had TT4 and fT4 concentrations greater than the lower reference limit after T/SMX administration was discontinued for 1 week, and cTSH concentrations were less than reference range after T/SMX administration was discontinued for 2 weeks. Two dogs developed decreased tear production, which returned to normal after discontinuing administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of T/SMX at a dosage of 14.1 to 16 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 3 weeks caused decreased TT4 and fT4 concentrations and increased cTSH concentration, conditions that would be compatible with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Therefore, dogs should not have thyroid function evaluated while receiving this dosage of T/SMX for > 2 weeks. These results are in contrast to those of a previous study of trimethoprim- sulfadiazine. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:256–259)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine hyaluronan concentrations in peritoneal fluid from healthy horses and horses with sudden signs of severe abdominal pain and to identify the cellular sources of hyaluronan within the peritoneal cavity.

Animals—7 client-owned horses that were evaluated for sudden signs of severe abdominal pain, 6 healthy teaching horses, and 13 euthanized horses (11 with no abdominal disease and 2 that had undergone abdominal surgery 2 weeks previously for a different study).

Procedures—Abdominal fluid was collected from the client-owned and teaching horses. Hyaluronan concentrations were determined with an ELISA. Equine mesothelial cells were aseptically harvested from euthanized horses immediately after euthanasia, cultured, and processed for western blot immunoassays to detect expression of the following mesothelial cell markers: cytokeratins 8 and 18, vimentin, calretinin, mesothelin, and CD44. A reverse transcriptase–PCR assay was used to detect genetic expression of hyaluronan synthase-2 (HAS-2) from cultured and native equine tissue.

Results—The mean ± SD abdominal hyaluronan concentration in peritoneal fluid from horses with signs of abdominal pain (1,203.3 ± 46.3 ng/mL) was significantly greater than that in healthy horses (228.4 ± 167.3 ng/mL). Harvested cells were maintained, and immunoblotting analyses confirmed expression of the mesothelial markers. Gene expression of HAS-2 from cultured mesothelial cells and fibroblasts was confirmed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Peritoneal hyaluronan concentration was much higher in horses with severe abdominal pain than in healthy horses. Cultured equine mesothelial cells and fibroblasts can produce hyaluronan through HAS-2. Future investigation should focus on establishing the effect of exogenous hyaluronan administration on mesothelial cell function in horses with abdominal disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the level of clinical agreement between 2 methods for the measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE).

Design—Prospective case series.

Animals—77 dogs.

Procedure—Oxygen consumption (O2) and CO2 production (CO2) were measured with an open-flow indirect calorimeter in healthy (n = 10) and ill (67) dogs. Measurements were collected at 3 time periods on 2 days. The O2 and the CO2 measurements were then used to calculate the REE values.

Results—Mean values of measured (MREE) and predicted (PREE) REEs in healthy dogs and a dog with medical illnesses or trauma were not significantly different. There was a significant difference on day 2 between the MREE and PREE in the group of dogs recovering from major surgery. More importantly, there was significant variation between the PREE and MREE on an individual-dog basis. The PREE only agreed to within ± 20% of the MREE in 51% to 57% of the dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The level of agreement between these two methods for determining the 24-hour REE was poor in individual dogs. The level of disagreement between the 2 methods indicates that these methods may not be used interchangeably in a clinical setting. Measurement of REE by use of indirect calorimetry may be the only reliable method of determining REE in an individual ill or healthy dog. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:58–64)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

The American Association of Veterinary Clinicians (AAVC) convened a Diversity, Equity, and Inclusivity working group in March 2021 to address the limited diversity (including but not limited to ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity) in clinical post-DVM graduate training programs and academic faculty. Concurrent with a working group formation, the AAVC developed a strategic plan. The central mission of the AAVC is to develop, support, and connect academic leaders to fuel the future of the veterinary medical profession. House officers and their training programs are central to all goals outlined in the strategic plan. Amongst other strategic goals, the working group identified best practices for intern and resident recruitment and selection. We report herein from the current health profession literature ways to identify and recruit talented, diverse candidates especially those with non-traditional (atypical) preparation and experience. We also provide recommendations on best practices for intern and resident selection. This document highlights holistic approaches, some of which are incrementally being incorporated into the Veterinary Intern Resident Matching Program application, that emphasize diversity as a selection criteria for intern and resident selection an important step towards building a more resilient and inclusive workforce. These include expanding candidate assessment beyond grades and class rank into a more standardized method for screening candidates that includes consideration of life experiences and talents outside of veterinary medicine.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association