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Objective

To evaluate indications for and complications, efficacy, and effects on renal function of unilateral nephrectomy in dogs with renal disease, and to evaluate the role that scintigraphy had in the decision to excise a kidney.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

30 dogs with renal disease that underwent unilateral nephrectomy. A comparison group of 12 dogs with renal calculi that underwent renal scintigraphy but not nephrectomy was included.

Results

Indications for nephrectomy included renal or ureteral calculi (n = 10), renal mass (8), chronic pyelonephritis (5), perirenal mass (3), severe hydronephrosis and hydroureter (3), and renal hypoplasia with ureteral ectopia (1). None of the dogs were azotemic before surgery. Renal scintigraphy apparently influenced the decision to perform nephrectomy, because in 14 of 16 dogs that underwent nephrectomy, the affected kidney contributed ≤ 33% of the total glomerular filtration rate, but in 6 of 8 comparison dogs that underwent nephrotomy, the affected kidney contributed > 33% of total glomerular filtration rate. Complications of nephrectomy included oliguria (5) and organ laceration (2). Mean ± SD final serum creatinine concentration for 16 dogs alive at least 6 months after nephrectomy was 2.2 ± 1.8 mg/dl. Three dogs had chronic renal failure of undetermined cause at the time of death. Nephrectomy did not completely resolve the underlying disease in 13 dogs. Renal function was evaluated in 6 dogs 2 to 3.5 years after nephrectomy and was impaired in 4. None of the dogs were anemic, azotemic, proteinuric, or hypertensive. Survival time varied depending on the underlying disease.

Clinical Implications

Multiple factors contributed to the decision to perform nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy resulted in few serious complications and was not detrimental to the remaining kidney, but did not always resolve the underlying disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:2020-2026)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis.

Results

Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats.

Clinical Implications

A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:1150-1156)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize and evaluate risk factors for suture-associated cystoliths in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—163 dogs and 13 cats with suture-associated cystoliths and 326 control dogs and 26 control cats with non–suture-associated cystoliths.

Procedures—Submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre received from 1999 to 2006 were reviewed. Case dogs and cats had cystoliths associated with visible suture or with hollow, cylindrical channels or suture knot impressions consistent with dissolved suture. Control dogs and cats had at least a single recurrent non–suture-associated cystolith submitted closest in time to the sample case. Associations among cystolith composition, recurrence times, sex, age, and breed were evaluated.

Results—Cases consisted of 92 dogs and 7 cats with visible suture and 71 dogs and 6 cats with dissolved suture. Suture-associated cystoliths represented 0.6% of canine cystoliths, 9.4% of recurrent canine cystoliths, 0.17% of feline cystoliths, and 4% of recurrent feline cystoliths. Sexually intact and neutered males were at increased odds of suture-associated cystoliths, relative to spayed female dogs. Shih Tzus, Lhasa Apsos, and Pomeranians were significantly predisposed to form suture-associated cystoliths. In dogs, compound suture-associated cystoliths were significantly more likely than other cystolith types (OR, 8.6). Dogs with suture-associated cystoliths had significantly shorter recurrence times than did control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Suture remnants in the bladder have an important role in recurrent cystolithiasis in dogs. Identification of risk factors is important for avoiding recurrence of iatrogenic cystoliths.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association