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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of application of an alcohol-based antiseptic (80% ethyl alcohol) hand rub (ABAHR) with that of a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (CGS2) for immediate reduction of the bacterial population on the skin of dogs.

ANIMALS 50 client-owned dogs with no evidence of skin disease.

PROCEDURES On each dog, 2 areas of hair on the ventral aspect of the abdomen were clipped with a No. 40 blade and cleared of debris. A direct contact plate holding tryptic soy agar with polysorbate 80 and lecithin was gently pressed (for 2 seconds) on each skin site (preapplication sample). The CGS2 and ABAHR were each aseptically applied to 1 skin site on each dog. A direct contact plate was subsequently applied to each site in a similar manner (postapplication sample). All plates were cultured, and bacterial isolates were identified and quantified by the number of CFUs per plate.

RESULTS Application of the CGS2 and ABAHR significantly decreased skin bacterial colony counts, compared with findings for preapplication samples. The number of CFUs per plate or postapplication percentage reduction in CFUs per plate did not differ between treatments. There were no adverse skin reactions associated with either application.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that applications of ABAHR and CGS2 were equally effective at immediately reducing the bacterial population on the skin of dogs, and there was no significant difference in percentage reduction in colony counts between the 2 applications.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize spatial release of platinum from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CI-CSH) beads by use of an agarose tissue phantom.

SAMPLE 3-mm-diameter beads (n = 60) containing 4.6 mg of carboplatin (2.4 mg of platinum)/bead.

PROCEDURES 18 L of 1% agarose was prepared and poured into 36 containers (10 × 10 × 10 cm), each of which was filled half full (0.5 L/container). After the agarose solidified, 1, 3, 6, or 10 CI-CSH beads were placed on the agar in defined patterns. An additional 36 blocks of agar (0.5 L/block) were placed atop the beads, positioning the beads in the center of 1 L of agar. The experiment was replicated 3 times for each bead pattern for 24, 48, and 72 hours. At these times, representative agarose blocks were sectioned in the x-, y-, and z-planes and labeled in accordance with their positions in shells radiating 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm from the center of the blocks. Agarose from each shell was homogenized, and a sample was submitted for platinum analysis by use of inductively coupled plasma–mass spectroscopy.

RESULTS Platinum diffused from CI-CSH beads at predicted anticancer cytotoxic concentrations for 2 to 5 cm.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided information regarding the spatial distribution of platinum expected to occur in vivo. Agarose may be used as a diffusion model, mimicking the characteristics of subcutaneous tissues. Measured platinum concentrations might be used to guide patterns for implantation of CI-CSH beads in animals with susceptible neoplasms.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the feasibility of endoscopic application of fibrin glue for the treatment of experimentally induced postintubation tracheal laceration (PITL) in feline cadavers. The secondary objective was to determine the optimal technique for application of the fibrin glue.

ANIMALS

20 feline cadavers (n = 10 fresh and 10 frozen).

PROCEDURES

An experimentally induced tracheal rupture was created via overinflation of an endotracheal tube cuff. After endoscopic identification of the tracheal tear, fibrin glue was instilled into the tracheal defect in either a bridging or filling fashion. Following the procedure, the airway of each cat was examined and leak tested. Length of tear, volume of glue applied, procedural time, and glue efficacy were recorded.

RESULTS

Experimentally induced tracheal lacerations were full thickness with a mean length of 3.27 ± 0.96 cm. A complete seal was attained in 6 of the 9 fresh cadavers when filling the defect with fibrin glue. In the remaining 3 fresh cadavers, air leakage was restricted to the dorsal mediastinum. Bridging the defect with fibrin glue did not attain a seal in fresh or frozen cadavers. The median volume of glue used to fill defects in fresh cadavers was 0.5 mL (range, 0.4 to 2 mL). Procedural time for the application of fibrin glue was 10.5 ± 4.1 minutes for bridging the defect and 7.8 ± 1.5 minutes for filling the defect.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Endoscopic application of fibrin glue may be a feasible method of treatment for PITL in cats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the clinical outcomes of the use of acellular fish skin grafts (FSGs) for the management of complex soft tissue wounds of various etiologies in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

13 dogs and 4 cats with complex wounds treated with FSGs between February 2019 and March 2021.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed for information regarding cause, location, size of the wound, management techniques, complications, and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

In dogs, the number of FSG applications ranged from 1 to 4 (median, 2 graft applications). The time between each application ranged from 4 to 21 days (median, 9.5 days). Time to application of the first FSG ranged from 9 to 210 days (median, 19 days). Wounds closed by second-intention healing following the first fish skin application between 26 and 145 days (median, 71 days; n = 12). In cats, 1 or 2 FSGs were used, and the wounds of 3 of 4 cats healed completely by secondary intention. The wounds of 1 dog and 1 cat did not heal. There were no adverse events attributed to the use of the FSGs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For dogs and cats of the present study, complete healing of most wounds occurred with the use of FSGs, the application of which did not require special training, instruments, or bandage materials.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Radiology

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To prospectively evaluate clinical outcomes using acellular fish skin grafts (FSGs) for the management of complete wound healing by secondary intention after wide surgical excision of skin tumors in dogs.

ANIMALS

5 dogs undergoing wide surgical excision of skin tumors on the distal extremity.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND PROCEDURES

FSGs were applied to surgical wound beds following wide excision of the tumor. Bandages were changed weekly and additional grafts placed when integration of the previous graft was complete. The wounds were assessed for the following: dimensions, tissue health (color), time to complete epithelialization, complications, and tumor recurrence.

RESULTS

All masses were excised with 2-cm lateral margins and 1 fascial plane deep to the tumor. Tumor diagnoses included 3 mast cell tumors and 2 soft tissue sarcomas. Surgical wounds had a median area of 27.6 cm2 (range, 17.6 to 58.7 cm2). The median number of FSG applications was 5 (range, 4 to 9 applications). Complete epithelialization occurred within 7 to 9 weeks for uncomplicated wounds (3 of 5) and 12 to 15 weeks for complicated wounds (2 of 5) that sustained self-trauma. There were no adverse events related to the use of FSGs. Local recurrence was not seen over a follow-up period ranging from 239 to 856 days.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Wide surgical excision of distal extremity skin tumors, followed by repeated application of acellular FSGs, resulted in complete healing of all wounds with no adverse events. This treatment method does not require advanced reconstructive surgical skills and may be useful for the management of skin tumors on the distal extremities.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Collaboration between primary care veterinarians (pcVets) and veterinary oncologists is common for dogs diagnosed with cancer, but no data exist that explore dog owner utilization and perceptions of collaborative care. The objectives were to describe dog owner perceptions of the value of collaborative veterinary cancer care and identify drivers of a positive collaborative care experience between the pcVet and oncologic specialists.

SAMPLE

890 US dog owners who had pets diagnosed with cancer in the past 3 years.

PROCEDURES

Online contextual survey. Data were analyzed using group comparisons and multiple regression analysis. Significance was set at P < .05.

RESULTS

76% of clients sought specialty care following cancer diagnosis in their dog. Seventy percent of owners across all income brackets indicated that referral to a specialist was a very good value based on money spent and outcomes. Delayed referral resulted in lower client satisfaction scores for pcVets. Top predictors of client satisfaction with pcVets were as follows: responsiveness to questions, staying involved with their dog’s care, and willingness to work with other veterinarians and specialists. For specialists, top predictors were as follows: providing accurate cost estimates, cancer knowledge, and effectiveness of care. Client perceptions of pcVets were 6 times more likely to improve following referral to a specialist. All were significant predictors of owner advocacy (P < .0001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dog owners perceived early collaboration between pcVets and specialists favorably, fostering client satisfaction and positive perceptions of the value for service provided for dogs diagnosed with cancer.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the feasibility and technique for performing laparoscopic ultrasound (LUS) of the liver in dogs.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs presenting for elective laparoscopic surgery from January 1, 2022, to October 31, 2022.

METHODS

Laparoscopic exploration and LUS of the liver were performed in all dogs. Dogs were positioned in reverse Trendelenburg and laterally rotated to facilitate access to all liver lobes. Time to perform laparoscopic exploration and LUS, ability to visualize and access each liver lobe entirely, and any complications were recorded. Each dog underwent an elective laparoscopic procedure. The surgeon completed a National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire after surgery.

RESULTS

Mean body weight was 25.9 kg (SD, ± 4.1 kg; range, 5.7 to 62 kg). All liver lobes were scanned to the level of the hilus in 10/12 dogs. In 2 dogs, the caudate lobe could not be completely imaged. Median time to perform LUS was 9 minutes (IQR, 5 to 16.5 minutes), and median NASA-TLX score was 9/100 (IQR, 6.3 to 20). There was a significantly strong negative correlation between time to perform LUS (r = −0.77; P = .0037) and NASA-TLX score (r = −0.84; P = .0006) with trial number. Minor complications occurred in 2 dogs during laparoscopic exploration. No complications occurred during LUS.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

LUS was feasible and safe in all dogs. The right lateral and caudate lobes were occasionally challenging to access. Technical demand and time to perform LUS improved with experience, suggesting a learning curve. Evaluation of LUS in dogs with clinical disease is warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research