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- Author or Editor: Elizabeth A. Mauldin x
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Objective—To describe clinical and histopathologic features of furunculosis in dogs following water immersion or exposure to grooming products.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—22 dogs with skin lesions consistent with furunculosis and a history of water immersion or grooming prior to onset.
Procedures—Information collected from the medical records of affected dogs included signalment, clinical signs, bathing or grooming procedure, diagnostic tests, treatment, and outcome.
Results—German Shepherd Dogs (4/22 [18%]) and Labrador Retrievers (4/22 [18%]) were most commonly affected. Skin lesions, particularly hemorrhagic pustules and crusts, were dorsally located in all dogs and occurred a median of 2 days (range, 1 to 7 days) following water immersion or exposure to grooming products. Twenty (91%) dogs were bathed at home or at a commercial grooming facility prior to lesion onset; 1 dog developed skin lesions following hydrotherapy on an underwater treadmill, and 1 dog developed peri-incisional skin lesions after surgery. Lethargy, signs of neck or back pain, and fever were common clinical signs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacterial isolate from dogs with bacteriologic culture performed on skin samples (10/14). The main histologic feature was acute follicular rupture in the superficial dermis with suppurative inflammation and dermal hemorrhage. Systemic antimicrobial treatment, particularly oral administration of fluoroquinolones, resulted in excellent clinical response in 16 of 22 (73%) dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acute-onset furunculosis with characteristic clinical and histopathologic features in dogs following water immersion or exposure to grooming products was described. Knowledge of the historical and clinical features of this syndrome is essential for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected dogs.
OBJECTIVE To describe the clinical and histologic features of acute erythroderma in dogs with gastrointestinal disease.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 18 dogs with erythroderma and gastrointestinal disease.
PROCEDURES Medical records and biopsy specimens were reviewed. Information collected from medical records included signalment, clinical signs, physical examination and diagnostic test results, treatment, and outcome. The Naranjo algorithm was used to estimate the probability of an adverse drug reaction for each dog.
RESULTS All dogs had an acute onset of erythematous macules or generalized erythroderma. Histologic features of skin biopsy specimens had 3 patterns representing a progressive spectrum of inflammation. Most dogs had vomiting (n = 17) and hematochezia (10). Signs of gastrointestinal disease became evident before, after, or concurrent with the onset of skin lesions in 10, 3, and 5 dogs, respectively. Inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, and adverse food reaction were diagnosed in 5, 3, and 3 dogs, respectively. The cause of the gastrointestinal signs was not identified for 8 dogs. Eight dogs had a Naranjo score consistent with a possible adverse drug reaction. Treatment of skin lesions included drug withdrawal (n = 15), antihistamines (16), and corticosteroids (14). Signs of gastrointestinal disease and skin lesions resolved at a mean of 4.6 days and 20.8 days, respectively, after onset.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated acute erythroderma may be associated with > 1 gastrointestinal disease or an adverse drug reaction in some dogs. Recognition of the clinical and histologic features of this syndrome is essential for accurate diagnosis.
Objective—To compare clinical information obtained from medical records of cats with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA) infections, evaluate antibiograms of MRSA and MSSA for multiple-drug resistance (MDR), and characterize the strain type and staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC)mec type of each MRSA.
Sample Population—70 S aureus isolates obtained from 46 cats.
Procedures—Clinical information obtained from medical records, including signalment, clinical signs, histologic examination of affected tissues, and outcomes, was compared between the 2 groups. Composite antibiograms of MRSA and MSSA were compared statistically. The MRSA strains were characterized by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and SCCmec typing.
Results—No statistical differences in signalment or subjective differences in clinical signs or outcomes were detected between groups with MRSA or MSSA infection. Significant differences in antimicrobial resistance were detected, with MRSA having complete resistance to fluoroquinolone and macrolide antimicrobials, whereas MSSA maintained a high frequency of susceptibility. Seven pulsed-field patterns were observed in 15 MRSA strains; all but 1 were highly related. All MRSA isolates contained a type II SCCmec element.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because MDR cannot be predicted in staphylococcal infections in cats on the basis of clinical signalment, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended whenever initial empirical treatment is unsuccessful. Molecular characterization of MRSA strains suggests that there has been reverse-zoonotic transmission from humans.
Impact for Human Medicine—The SCCmec type II element is typically associated with nosocomial MRSA infections of people. Cats may serve as reservoirs for MRSA infections in humans.
Objective—To evaluate factors associated with survival in dogs with nasal carcinomas that did not receive treatment or received only palliative treatment.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—139 dogs with histologically confirmed nasal carcinomas.
Procedures—Medical records, computed tomography images, and biopsy specimens of nasal carcinomas were reviewed. Only dogs that were not treated with radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy and that survived ≥ 7 days from the date of diagnosis were included. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival time. Factors potentially associated with survival were compared by use of log-rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariable survival analysis was performed by use of the Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Results—Overall median survival time was 95 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 73 to 113 days; range, 7 to 1,114 days). In dogs with epistaxis, the hazard of dying was 2.3 times that of dogs that did not have epistaxis. Median survival time of 107 dogs with epistaxis was 88 days (95% CI, 65 to 106 days) and that of 32 dogs without epistaxis was 224 days (95% CI, 54 to 467 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis of dogs with untreated nasal carcinomas is poor. Treatment strategies to improve outcome should be pursued.