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  • This report illustrates the feasibility of radiography, anesthesia, and coelomic surgery in a pet fish.

  • Pneumocystectomy can improve certain buoyancy disorders in fish.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to describe the historical, physical, neurologic, and clinicopathologic findings in dogs with a definitive diagnosis of marijuana/tetrahydrocannabinol toxicity.

ANIMALS

A total of 223 dogs with known ingestion of marijuana or a positive tetrahydrocannabinol result on human urine multidrug test.

METHODS

Retrospective study from January 2017 to July 2021.

RESULTS

Median age was 1 year (1 month to 12 years). A common history was becoming acutely neurologic after going outside or to a public place (62/223 [27.8%]). Most owners denied possibility of exposure (152/223 [68%]). Median vitals were normal, but hyperthermia (38/212 [22.6%]), tachycardia (82/222 [37%]), and systemic hypertension (37/61 [60.7%]) were common abnormalities. The most common clinical signs included ataxia (197/223 [88.3%]), hyperesthesia (168/223 [75.3%]), urinary incontinence (102/223 [45.7%]), lethargy (140/223 [62.5%]), and vomiting (58/223 [26%]). The most common combinations of neurologic signs included ataxia and hyperesthesia (157/223 [70.4%]) and ataxia, hyperesthesia, and urinary incontinence (81/223 [36.3%]). Mild hyperkalemia (39/76 [51.3%]) and mild hypercalcemia (53/67 [79.1%]) were common. Twenty-two dogs were hospitalized. Survival was 100%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A common presentation for marijuana toxicosis included young dogs with acute ataxia and hyperesthesia, with and without urinary incontinence, after going outside or to a public place. Vitals were often normal, but hyperthermia, tachycardia, and hypertension were common. Bloodwork was mostly normal, but mild hyperkalemia and mild ionized hypercalcemia were common. Marijuana should be high on the differential list with these history, physical examination, neurologic, and electrolyte abnormalities, regardless of owner denial or negative human urine multidrug test.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—An adult sexually intact female Vietnamese potbellied pig was examined because of abdominal distention of 5 months' duration.

Clinical Findings—The pig was moderately anemic, and its abdomen was greatly distended. A freely movable abdominal mass was detected during palpation and ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen. Examination of abdominal and thoracic radiographs revealed faint, ill-defined, linear and curvilinear mineralized opacities in the region of the mass and that the gastrointestinal tract was displaced craniodorsally. Results of radiographic exami-nation suggested that the cause of distention was a single abdominal mass (possibly a neoplasm).

Treatment and Outcome—Surgery was performed, and the mass, which was identified as the right ovary, was removed. The left ovary had a normal appearance, but it was also removed during surgery. The pig was administered a transfusion (314 mL of plasma and 296 mL of packed RBCs) before and during surgery. The mass, which accounted for ap-proximately one-third of the pig's body weight, was identified histologically as an ovarian leiomyoma.

Clinical Relevance—Pigs can safely be administered a transfusion of RBCs and plasma. Ovarian tumors can be removed from Vietnamese potbellied pigs, which allows them to be used as pets or for reproduction when only 1 ovary is affected. Uterine masses in older sexually intact Vietnamese potbellied pigs are more common than are ovarian tumors; thus, complete ovariohysterectomy should be considered when the primary purpose of the pig is to serve as a pet.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine safety and efficacy of an anesthetic protocol incorporating medetomidine, ketamine, and sevoflurane for anesthesia of injured loggerhead sea turtles.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—13 loggerhead sea turtles.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced with medetomidine (50 µg/kg [22.7 µg/lb], IV) and ketamine (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], IV) and maintained with sevoflurane (0.5 to 2.5%) in oxygen. Sevoflurane was delivered with a pressure-limited intermittent-flow ventilator. Heart rate and rhythm, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, and cloacal temperature were monitored continuously; venous blood gas analyses were performed intermittently. Administration of sevoflurane was discontinued 30 to 60 minutes prior to the end of the surgical procedure. Atipamezole (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb], IV) was administered at the end of surgery.

Results—Median induction time was 11 minutes (range, 2 to 40 minutes; n = 11). Median delivered sevoflurane concentrations 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after intubation were 2.5 (n = 12), 1.5 (12), 1.25 (12), and 0.5% (8), respectively. Heart rate decreased during surgery to a median value of 15 beats/min (n = 11). End-tidal partial pressure of CO2 ranged from 2 to 16 mm Hg (n = 8); median blood gas values were within reference limits. Median time from atipamezole administration to extubation was 14 minutes (range, 2 to 84 minutes; n = 7).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a combination of medetomidine and ketamine for induction and sevoflurane for maintenance provides safe, effective, controllable anesthesia in injured loggerhead sea turtles. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1019–1025)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Once considered to be a simple cause-and-effect relationship with localized impact, the concept of how antimicrobial use drives antimicrobial resistance is now recognized as a complex, transdisciplinary problem on a global scale. While the issue of antimicrobial resistance is often studied and addressed at the antimicrobial-human or antimicrobial-animal treatment interface, the role of the environment in the One Health dynamics of antimicrobial resistance is not as well understood. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including those resistant to carbapenem drugs, are emerging in veterinary clinical environments, on farms, and in natural habitats. These multidrug-resistant bacteria can colonize our livestock and companion animals and are later disseminated into the environment, where they contaminate surface waters and colonize wildlife. From here, the One Health transmission cycle of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is completed as environmental reservoirs can serve as sources of antimicrobial resistance transmission into human or animal healthcare settings. In this review, we utilize a One Health perspective to evaluate how environments become contaminated and, in turn, become reservoirs that can colonize and infect our veterinary species, and how the veterinary field is combating environmental contamination with antimicrobial stewardship regulations and program implementation. The companion Currents in One Health by Parker et al, AJVR, April 2024, addresses the intensive research that justifies this One Health cycle of antimicrobial resistance transmission and emerging techniques that are dissecting the complex interactions at the One Health interface.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Since their commercialization, scientists have known that antimicrobial use kills or inhibits susceptible bacteria while allowing resistant bacteria to survive and expand. Today there is widespread antimicrobial resistance (AMR), even to antimicrobials of last resort such as the carbapenems, which are reserved for use in life-threatening infections. It is often convenient to assign responsibility for this global health crisis to the users and prescribers of antimicrobials. However, we know that animals never treated with antimicrobials carry clinically relevant AMR bacteria and genes. The causal pathway from bacterial susceptibility to resistance is not simple, and dissemination is cyclical rather than linear. Amplification of AMR occurs in healthcare environments and on farms where frequent exposure to antimicrobials selects for resistant bacterial populations. The recipients of antimicrobial therapy release antimicrobial residues, resistant bacteria, and resistance genes in waste products. These are reduced but not removed during wastewater and manure treatment and enter surface waters, soils, recreational parks, wildlife, and fields where animals graze and crops are grown for human and animal consumption. The cycle is complete when a patient carrying AMR bacteria is treated with antimicrobials that amplify the resistant bacterial populations. Reducing the development and spread of AMR requires a One Health approach with the combined commitment of governments, medical and veterinary professionals, agricultural industries, food and feed processors, and environmental scientists. In this review and in the companion Currents in One Health by Ballash et al, JAVMA, April 2024, we highlight just a few of the steps of the complex cyclical causal pathway that leads to the amplification, dissemination, and maintenance of AMR.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine associations between clinical and histologic factors in dogs with primary lung tumors and outcome and to develop a histologic grading method for primary lung tumors.

Design

Retrospective study.

Animals

67 dogs undergoing thoracotomy and lobectomy for primary lung tumors.

Procedure

Medical records and histologic sections were reviewed to evaluate factors of prognostic importance. Association of these factors with disease-free interval (DFI) and survival time was evaluated, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Median DFI and survival time were determined, using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method.

Results

Clinical and histologic factors significantly associated with prognosis were histologic score, detection of clinical signs, and metastasis to regional lymph nodes. On the basis of histologic score, a histologic grading method was developed. Dogs with well-differentiated tumors had significantly longer survival time and DFI (median DFI, 493 days) than dogs with moderately (median DFI, 191 days) or poorly (median DFI, 0 days) differentiated tumors. Dogs with clinical signs or metastasis to regional lymph nodes had shorter survival times and DFI than dogs in which lung masses were discovered as an incidental finding.

Clinical Implications

Dogs with well-differentiated, nonmetastasized, primary lung tumors that do not have clinical signs associated with the tumor have a favorable prognosis. Dogs with more advanced disease or aggressive tumors histologically may require treatment, such as chemotherapy in combination with surgery. The grading method proposed here for primary lung tumors may be useful in other dogs with primary lung tumors. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:1422–1427)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine the effectiveness and safety of asparaginase administered SC versus IM for treatment of multicentric lymphoma in dogs receiving doxorubicin.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

49 dogs with multicentric lymphoma

Procedure

Dogs were treated with doxorubicin every 3 weeks, for a total of 5 treatments, and were given 3 weekly treatments of asparaginase, SC or IM. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, mean plasma asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid concentrations were determined in dogs before and during treatment with asparaginase (10,000 U/m2 of body surface area, once a week for 3 weeks). Asparaginase was administered SC in 23 dogs and IM in 26 dogs. Variables evaluated included time to response to chemotherapy, remission and survival times, and clinical and serum biochemical indicators of toxicoses

Results

Using the World Health Organization's staging system for lymphoma, 30 dogs were in clinical stage III and 19 were in clinical stage IV. One week after asparaginase treatment, plasma asparagine concentrations were low and plasma aspartic acid, glutamine, and glutamic acid concentrations were high. Differences in plasma amino acid concentrations were not found between SC and IM groups. For dogs in clinical stage IV, IM administration of asparaginase significantly decreased the number of days to complete remission, compared with SC administration (8 vs 17 days, respectively). For dogs in clinical stage III, IM administration favorably increased the duration of first remission (191 vs 103 days) and survival time (289 vs 209 days). Overall, dogs treated IM had a faster response to chemotherapy (9 vs 15 days), a longer remission (191 vs 109 days), and a longer survival time (286 vs 198 days), compared with all dogs treated SC. Asparaginase toxicoses were not observed regardless of the route of administration.

Clinical Implications

For dogs with multicentric lymphoma that are receiving doxorubicin, IM treatment with asparaginase is more effective than SC treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:353–356)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association