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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the stress of an ultrasonographic procedure would interfere with the suppressive effect of dexamethasone during a lowdose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) in healthy dogs.

Animals—6 clinically normal adult dogs.

Procedure—In phase 1, an LDDST was performed 5 times at weekly intervals in each dog. Serum samples were obtained 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after dexamethasone injection. A mock 20-minute abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed on all dogs at each time point during the LDDST on weeks 2 through 5. In phase 2, serum cortisol concentrations were measured before and immediately after a 20-minute mock abdominal ultrasonographic examination, as described for phase 1.

Results—We did not detect significant differences after dexamethasone injection when comparing median cortisol concentrations for weeks 2 to 5 (mock ultrasonographic procedure) with median concentration for week 1 (no mock ultrasonographic procedure). For 5 of the 6 dogs, cortisol concentrations after dexamethasone injection decreased to < 35.9 nmol/L after each mock ultrasonographic procedure and remained low for the duration of the LDDST. In phase 2, all dogs had significant increases in cortisol concentrations immediately after the mock ultrasonographic procedure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A 20-minute mock abdominal ultrasonographic examination performed during LDDST did not alter results of the LDDST in most dogs. Cortisol concentrations measured immediately after a mock ultrasonographic examination were significantly increased. Ultrasonographic procedures should be performed a minimum of 2 hours before collection of samples that will be used to measure cortisol concentrations. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:267–270)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T/SMX) on thyroid function in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy euthyroid dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were administered T/SMX (14.1 to 16 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 3 weeks. Blood was collected weekly for 6 weeks for determination of total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (fT4), and canine thyroid- stimulating hormone (cTSH) concentrations. Schirmer tear tests were performed weekly. Blood was collected for CBC prior to antimicrobial treatment and at 3 and 6 weeks.

Results—5 dogs had serum TT4 concentrations equal to or less than the lower reference limit, and 4 dogs had serum fT4 less than the lower reference limit after 3 weeks of T/SMX administration; cTSH concentrations were greater than the upper reference limit in 4 dogs. All dogs had TT4 and fT4 concentrations greater than the lower reference limit after T/SMX administration was discontinued for 1 week, and cTSH concentrations were less than reference range after T/SMX administration was discontinued for 2 weeks. Two dogs developed decreased tear production, which returned to normal after discontinuing administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that administration of T/SMX at a dosage of 14.1 to 16 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 3 weeks caused decreased TT4 and fT4 concentrations and increased cTSH concentration, conditions that would be compatible with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Therefore, dogs should not have thyroid function evaluated while receiving this dosage of T/SMX for > 2 weeks. These results are in contrast to those of a previous study of trimethoprim- sulfadiazine. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:256–259)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of isolation and susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma, or both that had or had not received antimicrobial treatment.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—50 dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were allocated to 1 of 4 groups: healthy dogs (n = 13), dogs without otitis but with pyoderma (10), dogs with otitis but without pyoderma (11), and dogs with otitis and pyoderma (16). Bacteriologic culture of ear swab specimens was performed in all dogs. Bacteriologic culture of skin swab specimens was also performed in dogs with concurrent pyoderma. Isolates were identified as S schleiferi subsp schleiferi or S schleiferi subsp coagulanson the basis of growth and biochemical characteristics.

ResultsS schleiferi was not isolated from any dogs with pyoderma only. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp schleiferi was isolated from the ears of 2 healthy dogs, and the skin and ears of 2 dogs and the skin of 1 dog with otitis and pyoderma. Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp coagulans was isolated from the ears of 3 dogs with otitis only, and the ears of 6 dogs and the skin of 2 dogs with otitis and pyoderma. One of the S schleiferi subsp schleiferi isolates from ears, 2 of the S schleiferi subsp coagulansisolates from ears, and 1 of the S schleiferi subsp coagulansisolates from the skin were resistant to methicillin. One methicillin-resistant isolate from the ears and 1 from the skin were also resistant to fluoroquinolones.

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceS schleiferi subsp schleiferiwas detected in healthy dogs and dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin-resistant and -susceptible S schleiferi subsp schleiferi and S schleiferi subsp coagulans were detected as the predominant organisms in dogs with otitis. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:928–931)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the bone temperature and final hole dimensions associated with sequential overdrilling (SO) and single 6.2-mm drill bit (S6.2DB) methods used to create transcortical holes in the third metacarpal bones (MCIIIs) of horse cadavers.

Sample—60 MCIIIs from 30 horse cadavers.

Procedures—In phase 1, hole diameter, tap insertion torque, peak bone temperature, and postdrilling bit temperature for 6.2-mm-diameter holes drilled in the lateral or medial cortical region of 12 MCIIIs via each of three 2-bit SO methods with a single pilot hole (diameter, 3.2, 4.5, or 5.5 mm) and the S6.2DB method were compared. In phase 2, 6.2-mm-diameter transcortical holes were drilled via a 2-bit SO method (selected from phase 1), a 4-bit SO method, or a S6.2DB method at 1 of 3 locations in 48 MCIIIs; peak bone temperature during drilling, drill bit temperature immediately following drilling, and total drilling time were recorded for comparison.

Results—Hole diameter or tap insertion torque did not differ among phase 1 groups. Mean ± SD maximum bone temperature increases at the cis and trans cortices were significantly less for the 4-bit SO method (3.64 ± 2.01°C and 8.58 ± 3.82°C, respectively), compared with the S6.2DB method (12.00 ± 7.07°C and 13.19 ± 7.41°C, respectively). Mean drilling time was significantly longer (142.9 ± 37.8 seconds) for the 4-bit SO method, compared with the S6.2DB method (49.7 ± 24.3 seconds).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with a S6.2DB method, use of a 4-bit SO method to drill transcortical holes in cadaveric equine MCIIIs resulted in smaller bone temperature increases without affecting hole accuracy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine the effect of oral melatonin (MT) administration on serum concentrations of sex hormones, prolactin, and thyroxine in dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

8 male and 8 female adult sexually intact dogs.

Procedure

5 male and 5 female dogs were treated with MT (1.0 to 1.3 mg/kg [0.45 to 0.59 mg/lb] of body weight), PO, every 12 hours for 28 days; the other 6 dogs were used as controls. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 14, and 28, and serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-HP), dihydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEAS), prolactin, and thyroxine were determined. On day 5, serum MT concentrations were measured before and periodically for up to 8 hours after MT administration in 4 treated dogs.

Results

Female dogs treated with MT had significant decreases in serum estradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations between days 0 and 28. Male dogs treated with MT had significant decreases in serum estradiol and 17-HP concentrations between days 0 and 28. Serum MT concentrations increased significantly after MT administration and remained high for at least 8 hours. Prolactin and thyroxine concentrations were unaffected by treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Melatonin is well absorbed following oral administration and may alter serum sex hormone concentrations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1111–1115)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association