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  • Author or Editor: Elisabeth Mayrhofer x
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Objective—To detect changes in joint kinematics of clinically sound dogs with or without radiographically detectable borderline hip dysplasia (HD).

Animals—20 Belgian Shepherd Dogs (Malinois; mean ± SD age, 2.75 ± 1.32 years) with no clinical signs of HD.

Procedures—Kinematic gait analysis was performed in Malinois walking on a treadmill. On the basis of results of radiographic examination for HD and in accordance with guidelines established by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale, dogs were assigned to group 1 (no radiographic signs of HD; 8 dogs) or group 2 (borderline HD; 12 dogs). Ground reaction forces and weight distribution among limbs and differences between groups were evaluated. Maximal sagittal angle during the stance and swing phases, the time at which they were detected, and angle velocities were calculated for joints of the hind limbs.

Results—Ground reaction forces revealed no differences between groups. Dogs in group 1 had significant changes (earlier time for maximal flexion of the hip joint and less flexion and less range of motion of the stifle joint), compared with results for dogs in group 2. Maximal angle velocity of the stifle and tarsal joints was significantly lower during the swing phase in group 1 than in group 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study revealed that dogs with borderline HD had altered joint kinematics. Our data provide basic kinematic values for clinically sound and affected dogs and can be used to investigate the long-term effects for subclinical radiographic changes of the hip joints of dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare bone mineral measurements obtained by use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and chemical-physical analyses and determine effects of age and femur size on values obtained for the various techniques.

Sample Population—Femurs obtained from 15 juvenile and 15 adult large-breed dogs.

Procedure—In each femur, 7 regions of interest were examined by use of DEXA to measure the bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), and 5 were examined by use of pQCT to measure BMD. Among these, 1 region was examined by both noninvasive methods and an invasive method. Volume of the femur was determined by water displacement. Volumetric bone density (VBD) was calculated. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), total Ca, and total P contents were determined.

Results—DEXA- and pQCT-derived results revealed that all values increased with age in juvenile dogs. In adults, VBD and pQCT-derived BMD decreased significantly and DEXA-derived BMD increased with increasing femur length. The pQCT-derived BMD correlated well with VBD and Ca content, whereas DEXA-derived BMC was strongly correlated with Ca content. In juveniles, values correlated regardless of the technique used, whereas in adult dogs, DEXA-derived BMD did not correlate with pQCT-derived BMD, Ca concentration, or VBD unless data were adjusted on the basis of femur length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—DEXA-derived BMD adjusted for femur length yields approximately the same percentage variability in VBD as for pQCT-derived BMD. However, pQCT-derived BMD is still more sensitive for determining variability in Ca concentration, compared with DEXA-derived BMD adjusted for femur length. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:891–900)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research