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  • Author or Editor: Elisabeth M. Liebler-Tenorio x
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Objective—To correlate tissue distribution with development of lesions after experimental infection with a virulent strain of noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 2 in calves.

Animals—Ten 14-day-old and two 2-month-old colostrum-deprived calves.

Procedure—Calves were intranasally inoculated with BVDV type-2 strain 1373 from an outbreak of clinically severe bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Two 14-day-old calves served as noninfected controls. Two calves each were euthanatized on postinoculation days 3, 6, and 12, and 1 each on days 8, 9, 13, and 14. Tissues were collected for immunohistologic and histologic examination.

Results—Inoculated calves developed nonspecific clinical signs characterized by high fever and decreased numbers of leukocytes and thrombocytes. Viral antigen was detected focally in lymphoid tissues on day 3. On days 6, 8, 9, 12, and 14, viral antigen became increasingly widespread throughout organs and tissues. Viral antigen in lymphoid tissues was associated with severe depletion of all compartments. Lesions in other tissues were not well correlated with distribution of viral antigen. Depletion of lymphoid tissues was observed in a calf on day 13, but viral antigen had been cleared from most tissues and was detected in vascular walls only.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infection with a virulent BVDV strain resulted in wide dissemination of viral antigen in host tissues. Severe lymphoid depletion developed in lymphoid tissues, whereas viral antigen was generally not associated with lesions in other tissues. Findings suggest that development of lesions in acute BVD is not solely a function of viral replication and is also attributable to host reaction to infection. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1575–1584

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate ultrastructural changes in follicles of small-intestinal aggregated lymphoid nodules (Peyer's patches) of calves with early and advanced phases of experimentally induced mucosal disease (MD).

Animals—Twenty 2.5- to 7-month-old Holstein-Friesian calves (11 females, 9 males).

Procedure—MD was induced in 13 of 18 calves that were persistently viremic with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Eight of the 13 calves were euthanatized before the onset of clinical signs of MD, and 5 were euthanatized after becoming moribund with MD. Five persistently viremic calves and 2 calves without BVDV served as controls. Specimens of small-intestinal aggregated lymphoid nodules were prepared for transmission electron microscopy.

Results—The ultrastructure of follicles of smallintestinal aggregated lymphoid nodules from healthy calves was consistent with that in sheep. In the early phase of MD, changes were characterized by numerous apoptotic lymphocytes and macrophages with apoptotic bodies. In more advanced lesions, affected lymphoid follicles consisted of macrophages and variable numbers of follicular dendritic cells (FDC), whereas others did not contain FDC. In moribund calves, small follicles consisting predominantly of FDC and follicles with central cavities surrounded by macrophages, and few neutrophils were observed.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ultrastructural changes in lymphoid follicles of smallintestinal aggregated lymphoid nodules indicate apoptosis of lymphocytes as an initial event. The development of small follicles consisting predominantly of FDC or the complete loss of follicular architecture in advanced phases of MD is determined by the intensity of apoptosis of lymphocytes, the capacity of the macrophages for uptake, and the reorganization of a stromal network. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:174–182)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research