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  • Author or Editor: Elisabet Dominguez x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

There is limited information on the normal appearance of the cisterna chyli (CC) in cats on CT and MRI. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the CT and MRI characteristics of the CC in a group of cats without lymphatic system pathology.

SAMPLE

A total of 31 CT and 63 MRI images were obtained of client-owned cats between January 2017 and March 2022.

METHODS

The presence, location, shape, maximum width, MRI-signal intensity, mean attenuation, and contrast enhancement of the CC were recorded from CT and MRI scans.

RESULTS

The CC was identified in all the CT scans and in 60 MRI studies. The CC was located level with the cranial mesenteric artery in 56 of 91 cases. It was crescent shaped in 34 of 54 cases. On precontrast CT images, the mean attenuation of the CC was 17 HU, and the mean postcontrast attenuation was 28 HU. On T2-weighted sequences, the CC was isointense to CSF and hyperintense to the muscles, while on T1-weighted images, it was isointense to the muscles. Contrast enhancement was variable in both techniques.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CT and MRI have the potential for noninvasive evaluation of CC in cats.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of excretory urography performed during radiography (REU) and CT (CTEU) in healthy rabbits, determine timings of urogram phases, and compare sensitivities of REU and CTEU for detection of these phases.

ANIMALS 13 New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

PROCEDURES Rabbits were screened for signs of systemic and urinary tract disease. An REU examination of each was performed, followed ≥ 5 days later by a CTEU examination. Contrast images from each modality were evaluated for quality of opacification and intervals between initiation of contrast medium administration and detection of various urogram phases.

RESULTS Excretory urograms of excellent diagnostic quality were achieved with both imaging modalities. For all rabbits, the nephrographic phase of the urogram appeared in the first postcontrast REU image (obtained between 34 and 40 seconds after initiation of contrast medium administration) and at a median interval of 20 seconds in CTEU images. The pyelographic phase began at a median interval of 1.63 minutes with both imaging modalities. Contrast medium was visible within the urinary bladder at a median interval of 2.20 minutes. Median interval to the point at which the nephrogram and pyelogram were no longer visible in REU images was 8 hours and 2.67 hours, respectively. The CTEU technique was better than the REU technique for evaluating renal parenchyma.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that REU and, particularly, CTEU may be valuable tools for the diagnosis of renal and urinary tract disease in rabbits; however, additional evaluation in diseased rabbits is required.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of presumed postictal changes (PC) on brain MRI in epileptic dogs, describe their distribution, and recognize possible correlations with different epilepsy features.

ANIMALS

540 client-owned dogs with epilepsy and a complete medical record that underwent brain MRI at 4 veterinary referral hospitals between 2016 and 2019.

PROCEDURES

Data were collected regarding signalment, seizure type, seizure severity, time between last seizure and MRI, and etiological classification of epilepsy. Postictal changes were considered when solitary or multiple intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions were observed on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and were hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted sequences, which were not confined to a vascular territory and showed no to mild mass effect and no to mild contrast enhancement.

RESULTS

Sixty-seven dogs (12.4%) showed MRI features consistent with PC. The most common brain sites affected were the piriform lobe, hippocampus, temporal neocortex, and cingulate gyrus. Dogs having suffered cluster seizures or status epilepticus were associated with a higher probability of occurrence of PC, compared to dogs with self-limiting seizures (OR 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 4.30). Suspected PC were detected both in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and in those with structural epilepsy. Dogs with unknown-origin epilepsy were more likely to have presumed PC than were dogs with structural (OR 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.33) or idiopathic epilepsy (OR 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.87). Time between last seizure and MRI was significantly shorter in dogs with PC.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

MRI lesions consistent with PC were common in epileptic dogs, and the brain distribution of these lesions varied. Occurrence of cluster seizures or status epilepticus, diagnosis of unknown origin epilepsy, and lower time from last seizure to MRI are predictors of suspected PC.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the occurrence of degenerative changes affecting the vertebral column in cats, assess their clinical significance, and determine the occurrence in cats with intervertebral disk herniation compared to other spinal diseases.

ANIMALS

114 client-owned cats.

METHODS

Hospital records were retrospectively reviewed for cats with suspected myelopathy that had undergone spinal MRI. Signalment; history; neurological examination; neurolocalization; primary diagnosis; presence, type, and location of intervertebral disk herniation; and presence and location of other degenerative spinal changes (intervertebral disk degeneration [IVDD], spondylosis deformans [SD], end plate changes, dorsal compressions [DC], and foraminal stenosis [FS]) were recorded.

RESULTS

70% of cats showed at least 1 spinal degenerative change. The most common change was IVDD, followed by SD and intervertebral disk protrusion (IVDP), while intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE), end plate changes, DC, and FS were uncommon to rare. Primary complaint was attributed to a degenerative condition in 22% of cats, including 100% with IVDE, 9% with IVDP, and 43% with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS). The occurrence of degenerative spinal changes and number of intervertebral disks affected by IVDD significantly increased with age and body weight. Age was positively correlated with the occurrence of SD and DLSS. Intervertebral disk degeneration, IVDP, SD, DC, and FS were more prevalent in the lumbosacral junction. Cats with IVDD were significantly more likely to show IVDE and IVDP.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study revealed that in a population of cats presenting for signs of myelopathy, IVDE was always responsible for the clinical presentation, DLSS was commonly considered incidental, and IVDP was infrequently related to neurological signs.

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