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  • Author or Editor: Elisa M. Mazzaferro x
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Objective—To identify clinically relevant variables and treatments for dogs bitten by prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis viridis).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—100 client-owned dogs.

Procedure—Records of dogs evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation from 1989 to 1998 were reviewed. Analysis was performed to test for significant associations among clinical variables or treatments and cell counts, costs, and duration of hospitalization.

Results—Most prairie rattlesnake bites occurred between May and September. Dogs were 3 months to 12 years old (median, 3.7 years); most were bitten on the head in the late afternoon. There was no sex predilection. Median time to evaluation was 1 hour (range, 15 minutes to 13 hours). Swelling in the area of the bite was the primary physical abnormality. Principal initial laboratory findings were echinocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and prolonged activated clotting time. Ninety-four dogs were hospitalized; 48 were discharged the following day. Antimicrobials and crystalloid fluids, glucocorticoids, antihistamines, and antivenin administered IV were the most commonly used treatments. One dog died, and small dogs were hospitalized longer than large dogs. Antivenin administration was not significantly associated with duration of hospitalization but was associated with higher platelet counts after treatment and higher total hospital costs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in dogs is associated with high morbidity rate but low mortality rate. The efficacy of administration of antivenin for dogs with bites from this snake species is questionable. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1675–1680)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) as well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).

Animals—15 weight-stable dogs with OSA that did not have other concurrent metabolic or endocrine illness and twelve 1-year-old sexually intact female Beagles (control dogs).

Procedures—Indirect calorimetry was performed on all dogs to determine REE and respiratory quotient (RQ). Stable isotope tracers (15N-glycine, 4.5 mg/kg of body weight, IV; 6,6-deuterium-glucose, 4.5 mg/kg, IV as a bolus, followed by continuous-rate infusion at 1.5 mg/kg/h for 3 hours) were used to determine rate of protein synthesis and glucose flux in all dogs. Dualenergy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were performed to determine total body composition.

Results—Accounting for metabolic body size, REE in dogs with OSA was significantly higher before and after surgery, compared with REE of healthy control dogs. The RQ values did not differ significantly between groups. Dogs with OSA also had decreased rates of protein synthesis, increased urinary nitrogen loss, and increased glucose flux during the postoperative period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in energy expenditure, protein synthesis, urinary nitrogen loss, and carbohydrate flux were evident in dogs with OSA, similar to results documented in humans with neoplasia. Changes were documented in REE as well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism in dogs with OSA. These changes were evident even in dogs that did not have clinical signs of cachexia. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1234–1239)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research