Objective—To identify clinically relevant variables
and treatments for dogs bitten by prairie rattlesnakes
(Crotalus viridis viridis).
Animals—100 client-owned dogs.
Procedure—Records of dogs evaluated for rattlesnake
envenomation from 1989 to 1998 were
reviewed. Analysis was performed to test for significant
associations among clinical variables or treatments
and cell counts, costs, and duration of hospitalization.
Results—Most prairie rattlesnake bites occurred
between May and September. Dogs were 3 months
to 12 years old (median, 3.7 years); most were bitten
on the head in the late afternoon. There was no sex
predilection. Median time to evaluation was 1 hour
(range, 15 minutes to 13 hours). Swelling in the area
of the bite was the primary physical abnormality.
Principal initial laboratory findings were echinocytosis,
thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and prolonged
activated clotting time. Ninety-four dogs were hospitalized;
48 were discharged the following day.
Antimicrobials and crystalloid fluids, glucocorticoids,
antihistamines, and antivenin administered IV were
the most commonly used treatments. One dog died,
and small dogs were hospitalized longer than large
dogs. Antivenin administration was not significantly
associated with duration of hospitalization but was
associated with higher platelet counts after treatment
and higher total hospital costs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prairie rattlesnake
envenomation in dogs is associated with
high morbidity rate but low mortality rate. The efficacy
of administration of antivenin for dogs with bites
from this snake species is questionable. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2002;220:1675–1680)
Objective—To evaluate changes in resting energy
expenditure (REE) as well as protein and carbohydrate
metabolism in dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA).
Animals—15 weight-stable dogs with OSA that did
not have other concurrent metabolic or endocrine illness
and twelve 1-year-old sexually intact female
Beagles (control dogs).
Procedures—Indirect calorimetry was performed on
all dogs to determine REE and respiratory quotient
(RQ). Stable isotope tracers (15N-glycine, 4.5 mg/kg of
body weight, IV; 6,6-deuterium-glucose, 4.5 mg/kg, IV
as a bolus, followed by continuous-rate infusion at 1.5
mg/kg/h for 3 hours) were used to determine rate of
protein synthesis and glucose flux in all dogs. Dualenergy
x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were performed
to determine total body composition.
Results—Accounting for metabolic body size, REE in
dogs with OSA was significantly higher before and
after surgery, compared with REE of healthy control
dogs. The RQ values did not differ significantly
between groups. Dogs with OSA also had decreased
rates of protein synthesis, increased urinary nitrogen
loss, and increased glucose flux during the postoperative
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Alterations in
energy expenditure, protein synthesis, urinary nitrogen
loss, and carbohydrate flux were evident in dogs
with OSA, similar to results documented in humans
with neoplasia. Changes were documented in REE as
well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism in dogs
with OSA. These changes were evident even in dogs
that did not have clinical signs of cachexia. (Am J Vet