OBJECTIVE To develop a model of hip joint synovitis on the basis of intra-articular injection of a sodium urate suspension in dogs and to characterize associated gait changes.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult dogs.
PROCEDURES Each dog was sedated, and synovitis was induced by injection of 1 mL of a sodium urate suspension (20 mg/mL) into the right hip joint under ultrasonographic guidance. Observational and instrumented gait analyses to determine temporospatial, kinetic, and kinematic variables were performed prior to and 4, 8, and 24 hours after sedation and synovitis induction.
RESULTS Injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs resulted in lameness of the ipsilateral pelvic limb as determined by observational and instrumented gait analyses. For all dogs, lameness was clinically detectable within 1.5 to 2 hours after injection, reached its maximum intensity at 4 hours after injection, and had subsided by 24 hours after injection.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that injection of a sodium urate suspension into the hip joint of healthy dogs reliably induced synovitis and signs of pain and lameness in the ipsilateral pelvic limb that lasted 24 hours. This model can be used in conjunction with instrumented gait analysis to provide information on gait changes associated with hip joint disease and might be useful for evaluating the efficacy of analgesics or other interventions for the treatment of hip joint disease in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of selective hip joint denervation on gait abnormalities and signs of hip joint pain in dogs.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hound-type dogs.
PROCEDURES Minimally invasive denervation was performed on the right hip joint of each dog. Two weeks later, sodium urate was injected into the right hip joint to induce synovitis. Dogs were evaluated clinically and by use of instrumented gait analysis before and 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation and 4, 8, and 24 hours after induction of synovitis. Dogs were euthanized, and necropsy and histologic examination were performed.
RESULTS No kinetic or kinematic gait modifications were detected 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation. Denervation did not eliminate signs of pain and lameness associated with sodium urate–induced synovitis. Results of histologic examination confirmed that denervation was an effective method for transecting the innervation of the craniolateral and caudolateral aspects of the hip joint capsule.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, minimally invasive denervation did not result in gait modifications in dogs. Denervation did not abolish the signs of pain and lameness associated with generalized induced synovitis of the hip joint. Further studies are required before conclusions can be drawn regarding the clinical usefulness of hip joint denervation for dogs with hip dysplasia.