To describe the association between a diagnosis of eosinophilic lung disease (ELD) in dogs with signalment and bronchoscopic features and evaluate the accuracy of visualization of nodules for the diagnosis of ELD.
781 dogs with cough that underwent bronchoscopy between 2014 and 2016.
Data were extracted from the medical records of each included dog. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate associations between ELD and patient characteristics.
ELD was diagnosed in 113 (14.5%) dogs. More than 3 nodular lesions of the bronchial mucosa were detected in 64 (8.2%) dogs. The odds of having ELD were greater in dogs with nodules (adjusted OR [aOR], 26.0; 95% CI, 13.0 to 52.0) and static bronchial collapse (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.6), and lower in dogs having focal versus diffuse inflammation (aOR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.37). The odds of having ELD decreased for each 1-year increase in age (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.92), and increased for each 1-kg increase in weight (aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06). Visualization of nodules during bronchoscopy had a overall accuracy of 89.4% (95% CI, 87.0% to 91.4%), sensitivity of 41.6% (32.4% to 51.2%), and specificity of 97.5% (96.0% to 98.5%) for a diagnosis of ELD.
On the basis of high specificity and negative predictive value, lack of visualization of bronchial nodules during bronchoscopy can be used to preliminarily rule out ELD. However, visualization of bronchial nodules does not imply presence of ELD. This could be especially relevant when results of BAL cytology are available several days after the actual bronchoscopy.
To prospectively evaluate the clinical and prognostic importance of duodenal endoscopic and histologic findings, including duodenal mucosal counts of forkhead box P3-positive regulatory T cells (Foxp3+ Tregs), in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy (IRE).
57 client-owned dogs with IRE.
The canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) was used to assess each dog when IRE was diagnosed (T0) and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Dogs were grouped on the basis of clinical response (responder group vs nonresponder group) and 12-month long-term outcome (responded to treatment and did not relapse [good outcome group] vs did not respond to treatment or had relapsed [bad outcome group]). At T0, dogs underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy, with results for variables of duodenal endoscopic and histologic evaluations scored and compared across groups.
At T0, the overall median CCECAI score was 7; CCECAI score was not associated with clinical response or relapse. Dogs had significantly greater odds of being in the bad outcome group (vs the good outcome group) if they had a histologic score of 3 (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.09 to 11.3). No differences in the counts of Foxp3+ Tregs were detected between groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In dogs with IRE, results indicated that evaluation of Foxp3+ Tregs did not have prognostic value, whereas a duodenal histologic score of 3 could be a negative prognostic factor for response and relapse, and higher severity scores for intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes and plasma cells in duodenal biopsy samples may be negatively associated with response.