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  • Author or Editor: Eleanor C. Hawkins x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bronchial brushings from dogs with chronic cough have increased numbers of goblet cells and WBCs, compared with numbers for healthy dogs, or have differing WBC populations, compared with populations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from dogs with chronic cough.

Animals—9 healthy dogs and 10 dogs with chronic cough.

Procedure—Specimens were collected by use of bronchoscopy. Cellular composition was determined for brushings, and results from dogs with chronic cough were compared with those from healthy dogs. Cellular composition of brushings was compared with composition of BAL obtained from dogs with chronic cough.

Results—Brushings from healthy dogs contained a median of 2.9 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 100% epithelial cells (96% ciliated, 3% goblet, and 1% other) and no WBCs. Brushings from dogs with chronic cough had 4.5 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 93% epithelial cells (86% ciliated, 2% goblet, and 12% other). Dogs with chronic cough had significantly greater percentages of WBCs (7%) and neutrophils (6%), compared with values for healthy dogs. Five dogs with chronic cough had no neutrophilic inflammation evident in BAL, but 4 of these had evidence of neutrophilic inflammation in brushings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophils, but not goblet cells, were increased in brushings from dogs with chronic cough. Analysis of bronchial brushings provides information about airway inflammation that differs from that found by examination of BAL in some dogs with chronic cough and is a more sensitive indicator of airway inflammation than cytologic examination of BAL in these dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a real-time PCR assay for the quantification of mucin gene expression in tracheobronchial brushing specimens from dogs and compare mucin gene expression in specimens from dogs with naturally occurring chronic bronchitis with that in specimens from healthy dogs.

Animals—7 healthy dogs and 5 dogs with chronic bronchitis.

Procedures—Primers that were designed to span the predicted intron-exon boundaries of a canine MUC5AC-like gene were used to develop a real-time PCR assay for quantification of expression of that gene. Total mRNA was isolated from tracheobronchial brushing specimens obtained from dogs with and without bronchitis during anesthesia; MUC5AC-like gene expression in those samples was quantified by use of the real-time PCR assay.

Results—The PCR assay was sensitive and specific for the target sequence, the predicted amino acid sequence of which had greatest homology with human, porcine, and rat MUC5AC. The assay was able to quantify the target over a wide dynamic range. Dogs with chronic bronchitis had a 3.0-fold increase in the quantity of MUC5AC-like mRNA, compared with healthy dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ability to measure mucin gene expression from tracheobronchial brushing specimens collected from client-owned dogs during routine bronchoscopy should prove to be a useful tool for the study of bronchitis in dogs and expand the usefulness of airway inflammation in dogs as a model for bronchitis in humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine demographic, clinical, and radiographic features of bronchiectasis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—289 dogs identified through the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) and 27 dogs examined at the North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital.

Procedure—Demographic characteristics of dogs identified through the VMDB were compared with characteristics of the entire population of dogs entered in the VMDB. Medical records of dogs examined at the teaching hospital were reviewed; the diagnosis was confirmed through review of thoracic radiographs.

Results—Analysis of data from the VMDB indicated that American Cocker Spaniels, West Highland White Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Siberian Huskies, English Springer Spaniels, and dogs > 10 years old had an increased risk of bronchiectasis. Among dogs examined at the teaching hospital, coughing was the most common clinical sign. There was evidence for excessive airway mucus but not hemorrhage. A variety of bacterial organisms were isolated from tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. On thoracic radiographs, cylindrical bronchiectasis, generalized disease, and right cranial lung lobe involvement were most common. Seven of 14 dogs for which follow-up radiographs were available did not have any progression of radiographic lesions. Median duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis of bronchiectasis was 9 months (range, 1 day to 10 years). Median survival time was 16 months (range, 2 days to 72 months).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that despite substantial clinical abnormalities, dogs with bronchiectasis may survive for years. Certain purebred dogs and older dogs may have an increased risk of developing bronchiectasis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1628–1635)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge and 63 age- and weight-matched control dogs without nasal discharge and no clinical signs of bartonellosis.

Procedures—Serum was tested for antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii with indirect fluorescent antibody assays. Blood was tested for Bartonella DNA with a PCR assay.

Results—Results of the antibody and PCR assays were negative for all 44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge. One control dog had antibodies against B henselae; a second control dog had positive PCR assay results. We did not detect a significant association between assay results and group designation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, hematologic, and serologic findings in dogs with Ehrlichia ewingii infection.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—In all dogs, infection with E ewingii was confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Follow-up information and clarification of information recorded in the medical records was obtained by telephone interviews and facsimile correspondence with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results—Fever and lameness were the most common findings with each occurring in 8 dogs. Five dogs had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, paresis, proprioceptive deficits, anisocoria, intention tremor, and head tilt. Neutrophilic polyarthritis was identified in 4 dogs. No clinical signs were reported in 3 dogs. The predominant hematologic abnormality was thrombocytopenia, which was identified in all 12 dogs for which a platelet count was available. Reactive lymphocytes were seen in 5 of 13 dogs. Concurrent infection with another rickettsial organism was identified in 4 dogs. Of the 13 dogs tested, 7 were seroreactive to E canis antigens. Morulae consistent with E ewingii infection were identified in neutrophils in 8 dogs. Treatment with doxycycline, with or without prednisone, resulted in a rapid, favorable clinical response in the 9 dogs for which follow-up information was available.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PCR testing for E ewingii infection should be considered in dogs with fever, neutrophilic polyarthritis, unexplained ataxia or paresis, thrombocytopenia, or unexplained reactive lymphocytes, and in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of ehrlichiosis that are seronegative for E canis. Following treatment with doxycycline, the prognosis for recovery is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1102–1107)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association