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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Tracheal wash and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analyses were performed in 9 dogs that had mycotic infections with pulmonary involvement. Characteristic organisms were identified in tracheal wash fluid in 3 of 7 dogs with blastomycosis. Organisms were identified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in 5 of 7 dogs with blastomycosis and in one dog with histoplasmosis. Organisms were not found in either fluid in one dog with coccidioidomycosis. These procedures should be considered for dogs with suspected mycotic infections that involve the lungs and that cannot be diagnosed by less invasive means.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) was performed in 47 dogs with multicentric malignant lymphoma (ml). Cytologic results were evaluated, and ability to detect pulmonary involvement with ml, using bal, was compared with ability to detect pulmonary involvement, using thoracic radiography and tracheal wash. Lung lobes were considered to be involved with ml on the basis of bal fluid findings if morphologically abnormal lymphocytes were present in the fluid.

Total nucleated cell count, relative lymphocyte count, and absolute lymphocyte count were greater (P < 0.001) in bal fluid from dogs with multicentric ml than in bal fluid from histologically normal dogs. Pulmonary involvement with ml was detected by bal fluid cytologic examination in 89 of 135 lung lobes lavaged (66%). Lung lobes involved with ml were from 31 of the 47 dogs with multicentric ml (66%). Radiographic abnormalities supportive of pulmonary parenchymal involvement with ml were detected in 16 of the 47 dogs (34%). Of these 16 dogs, 15 (94%) had pulmonary involvement with ml on the basis of bal fluid cytologic findings. Tracheal wash fluid contained abnormal lymphocytes in 4 of 42 dogs (10%). In all 4 dogs, bal fluid also contained abnormal lymphocytes. Cytologic evaluation of bal fluid was more sensitive in detecting pulmonary involvement with ml, compared with radiographic evaluation of the lungs or tracheal wash.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether orally administered valacyclovir can be used safely and effectively to treat cats with primary, feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) infection.

Animals

14 specific-pathogen-free adult cats.

Procedure

Cats were infected with FHV-1 strain 87-727 (300 μl, 107 plaque-forming units/ml) by ocular and nasal inoculations, and were treated every 6 hours with dextrose (controls) or valacyclovir (60 mg/kg of body weight, PO). Virus shedding from both eyes and the oropharynx was monitored every 2 days by virus isolation, and subjective clinical scores were assigned daily for ocular and nasal discharge and conjunctival hyperemia. Urinalysis, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis were done prior to inoculation, and on days 2, 5, 7, 9, and 12 of infection. Differences in CBC and serum biochemical indices between groups were compared, as were differences between preinfection values and maximal postinfection values, rectal temperature, and scores for disease severity.

Results

All cats developed acute conjunctivitis and rhinitis typical of FHV-1 infection. Beginning between days 6 and 9, valacyclovir-treated cats became noticeably more lethargic and dehydrated than did cats of the control group. Total WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly lower in cats of the valacyclovir group. The experiment was terminated on day 12 for humane reasons. Histologic changes attributable to FHV-1 infection were similar in all cats. Additional histologic abnormalities seen only in the valacyclovir-treated cats were coagulative necrosis of the renal tubular epithelium, centrilobular atrophy and hepatic necrosis, and severe bone marrow depression.

Conclusions

Cats appear to be uniquely sensitive to the toxic effects of valacyclovir, and even high doses appear not to suppress FHV-1 replication in acutely infected cats.

Clinical Relevance

Use of valacyclovir is of questionable value in cats with acute FHV-1 infection and, at high doses, the drug may be toxic. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1141–1144)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a real-time PCR assay for the quantification of mucin gene expression in tracheobronchial brushing specimens from dogs and compare mucin gene expression in specimens from dogs with naturally occurring chronic bronchitis with that in specimens from healthy dogs.

Animals—7 healthy dogs and 5 dogs with chronic bronchitis.

Procedures—Primers that were designed to span the predicted intron-exon boundaries of a canine MUC5AC-like gene were used to develop a real-time PCR assay for quantification of expression of that gene. Total mRNA was isolated from tracheobronchial brushing specimens obtained from dogs with and without bronchitis during anesthesia; MUC5AC-like gene expression in those samples was quantified by use of the real-time PCR assay.

Results—The PCR assay was sensitive and specific for the target sequence, the predicted amino acid sequence of which had greatest homology with human, porcine, and rat MUC5AC. The assay was able to quantify the target over a wide dynamic range. Dogs with chronic bronchitis had a 3.0-fold increase in the quantity of MUC5AC-like mRNA, compared with healthy dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ability to measure mucin gene expression from tracheobronchial brushing specimens collected from client-owned dogs during routine bronchoscopy should prove to be a useful tool for the study of bronchitis in dogs and expand the usefulness of airway inflammation in dogs as a model for bronchitis in humans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether bronchial brushings from dogs with chronic cough have increased numbers of goblet cells and WBCs, compared with numbers for healthy dogs, or have differing WBC populations, compared with populations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from dogs with chronic cough.

Animals—9 healthy dogs and 10 dogs with chronic cough.

Procedure—Specimens were collected by use of bronchoscopy. Cellular composition was determined for brushings, and results from dogs with chronic cough were compared with those from healthy dogs. Cellular composition of brushings was compared with composition of BAL obtained from dogs with chronic cough.

Results—Brushings from healthy dogs contained a median of 2.9 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 100% epithelial cells (96% ciliated, 3% goblet, and 1% other) and no WBCs. Brushings from dogs with chronic cough had 4.5 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 93% epithelial cells (86% ciliated, 2% goblet, and 12% other). Dogs with chronic cough had significantly greater percentages of WBCs (7%) and neutrophils (6%), compared with values for healthy dogs. Five dogs with chronic cough had no neutrophilic inflammation evident in BAL, but 4 of these had evidence of neutrophilic inflammation in brushings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophils, but not goblet cells, were increased in brushings from dogs with chronic cough. Analysis of bronchial brushings provides information about airway inflammation that differs from that found by examination of BAL in some dogs with chronic cough and is a more sensitive indicator of airway inflammation than cytologic examination of BAL in these dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine historical, physical examination, hematologic, and serologic findings in dogs with Ehrlichia ewingii infection.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—15 dogs.

Procedure—In all dogs, infection with E ewingii was confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Follow-up information and clarification of information recorded in the medical records was obtained by telephone interviews and facsimile correspondence with referring veterinarians and owners.

Results—Fever and lameness were the most common findings with each occurring in 8 dogs. Five dogs had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, paresis, proprioceptive deficits, anisocoria, intention tremor, and head tilt. Neutrophilic polyarthritis was identified in 4 dogs. No clinical signs were reported in 3 dogs. The predominant hematologic abnormality was thrombocytopenia, which was identified in all 12 dogs for which a platelet count was available. Reactive lymphocytes were seen in 5 of 13 dogs. Concurrent infection with another rickettsial organism was identified in 4 dogs. Of the 13 dogs tested, 7 were seroreactive to E canis antigens. Morulae consistent with E ewingii infection were identified in neutrophils in 8 dogs. Treatment with doxycycline, with or without prednisone, resulted in a rapid, favorable clinical response in the 9 dogs for which follow-up information was available.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that PCR testing for E ewingii infection should be considered in dogs with fever, neutrophilic polyarthritis, unexplained ataxia or paresis, thrombocytopenia, or unexplained reactive lymphocytes, and in dogs with clinical signs suggestive of ehrlichiosis that are seronegative for E canis. Following treatment with doxycycline, the prognosis for recovery is good. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1102–1107)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association