Objective—To determine whether bronchial brushings from dogs with chronic cough have increased numbers of goblet cells and WBCs, compared with numbers for healthy dogs, or have differing WBC populations, compared with populations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained from dogs with chronic cough.
Animals—9 healthy dogs and 10 dogs with chronic cough.
Procedure—Specimens were collected by use of bronchoscopy. Cellular composition was determined for brushings, and results from dogs with chronic cough were compared with those from healthy dogs. Cellular composition of brushings was compared with composition of BAL obtained from dogs with chronic cough.
Results—Brushings from healthy dogs contained a median of 2.9 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 100% epithelial cells (96% ciliated, 3% goblet, and 1% other) and no WBCs. Brushings from dogs with chronic cough had 4.5 × 106 epithelial cells, comprising 93% epithelial cells (86% ciliated, 2% goblet, and 12% other). Dogs with chronic cough had significantly greater percentages of WBCs (7%) and neutrophils (6%), compared with values for healthy dogs. Five dogs with chronic cough had no neutrophilic inflammation evident in BAL, but 4 of these had evidence of neutrophilic inflammation in brushings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Neutrophils, but not goblet cells, were increased in brushings from dogs with chronic cough. Analysis of bronchial brushings provides information about airway inflammation that differs from that found by examination of BAL in some dogs with chronic cough and is a more sensitive indicator of airway inflammation than cytologic examination of BAL in these dogs.
Objective—To develop a real-time PCR assay for the quantification of mucin gene expression in tracheobronchial brushing specimens from dogs and compare mucin gene expression in specimens from dogs with naturally occurring chronic bronchitis with that in specimens from healthy dogs.
Animals—7 healthy dogs and 5 dogs with chronic bronchitis.
Procedures—Primers that were designed to span the predicted intron-exon boundaries of a canine MUC5AC-like gene were used to develop a real-time PCR assay for quantification of expression of that gene. Total mRNA was isolated from tracheobronchial brushing specimens obtained from dogs with and without bronchitis during anesthesia; MUC5AC-like gene expression in those samples was quantified by use of the real-time PCR assay.
Results—The PCR assay was sensitive and specific for the target sequence, the predicted amino acid sequence of which had greatest homology with human, porcine, and rat MUC5AC. The assay was able to quantify the target over a wide dynamic range. Dogs with chronic bronchitis had a 3.0-fold increase in the quantity of MUC5AC-like mRNA, compared with healthy dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ability to measure mucin gene expression from tracheobronchial brushing specimens collected from client-owned dogs during routine bronchoscopy should prove to be a useful tool for the study of bronchitis in dogs and expand the usefulness of airway inflammation in dogs as a model for bronchitis in humans.
Objective—To determine demographic, clinical, and
radiographic features of bronchiectasis in dogs.
Animals—289 dogs identified through the Veterinary
Medical Database (VMDB) and 27 dogs examined at
the North Carolina State University Veterinary
Procedure—Demographic characteristics of dogs
identified through the VMDB were compared with
characteristics of the entire population of dogs
entered in the VMDB. Medical records of dogs examined
at the teaching hospital were reviewed; the diagnosis
was confirmed through review of thoracic radiographs.
Results—Analysis of data from the VMDB indicated
that American Cocker Spaniels, West Highland White
Terriers, Miniature Poodles, Siberian Huskies, English
Springer Spaniels, and dogs > 10 years old had an
increased risk of bronchiectasis. Among dogs examined
at the teaching hospital, coughing was the most
common clinical sign. There was evidence for excessive
airway mucus but not hemorrhage. A variety of
bacterial organisms were isolated from tracheal wash
and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. On thoracic radiographs,
cylindrical bronchiectasis, generalized disease,
and right cranial lung lobe involvement were
most common. Seven of 14 dogs for which follow-up
radiographs were available did not have any progression
of radiographic lesions. Median duration of clinical
signs prior to diagnosis of bronchiectasis was 9
months (range, 1 day to 10 years). Median survival
time was 16 months (range, 2 days to 72 months).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that despite substantial clinical abnormalities,
dogs with bronchiectasis may survive for years.
Certain purebred dogs and older dogs may have an
increased risk of developing bronchiectasis. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;223:1628–1635)
Objective—To determine whether infection with or exposure to Bartonella spp was associated with idiopathic rhinitis in dogs.
Animals—44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge and 63 age- and weight-matched control dogs without nasal discharge and no clinical signs of bartonellosis.
Procedures—Serum was tested for antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii with indirect fluorescent antibody assays. Blood was tested for Bartonella DNA with a PCR assay.
Results—Results of the antibody and PCR assays were negative for all 44 dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge. One control dog had antibodies against B henselae; a second control dog had positive PCR assay results. We did not detect a significant association between assay results and group designation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The present study failed to confirm an association between idiopathic rhinitis and exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs. Findings do not rule out the possibility that Bartonella infection may cause nasal discharge in some dogs, but the failure to find any evidence of exposure to or infection with Bartonella spp in dogs with idiopathic nasal discharge suggested that Bartonella infection was not a common cause of the disease.
Objective—To determine historical, physical examination,
hematologic, and serologic findings in dogs
with Ehrlichia ewingii infection.
Procedure—In all dogs, infection with E ewingii was
confirmed with a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
assay. Follow-up information and clarification of information
recorded in the medical records was obtained
by telephone interviews and facsimile correspondence
with referring veterinarians and owners.
Results—Fever and lameness were the most common
findings with each occurring in 8 dogs. Five dogs
had neurologic abnormalities including ataxia, paresis,
proprioceptive deficits, anisocoria, intention tremor,
and head tilt. Neutrophilic polyarthritis was identified
in 4 dogs. No clinical signs were reported in 3 dogs.
The predominant hematologic abnormality was
thrombocytopenia, which was identified in all 12 dogs
for which a platelet count was available. Reactive lymphocytes
were seen in 5 of 13 dogs. Concurrent
infection with another rickettsial organism was identified
in 4 dogs. Of the 13 dogs tested, 7 were seroreactive
to E canis antigens. Morulae consistent with E
ewingii infection were identified in neutrophils in 8
dogs. Treatment with doxycycline, with or without
prednisone, resulted in a rapid, favorable clinical
response in the 9 dogs for which follow-up information
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that PCR testing for E ewingii infection should
be considered in dogs with fever, neutrophilic polyarthritis,
unexplained ataxia or paresis, thrombocytopenia,
or unexplained reactive lymphocytes, and in
dogs with clinical signs suggestive of ehrlichiosis that
are seronegative for E canis. Following treatment
with doxycycline, the prognosis for recovery is good.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1102–1107)