To report the clinical outcomes of horses with chronic guttural pouch infection characterized by accumulation of mucopurulent material following transpharyngeal diode laser fenestration.
13 client-owned horses
Horses undergoing diode laser fenestration for chronic guttural pouch infection were identified by medical record search. Signalment, disease history, presence of mucopurulent empyema or chondroids, and pre- and postoperative therapy were recorded. Owners were contacted for follow-up information at a minimum of 6 months following surgery.
13 horses underwent laser fenestration for chronic guttural pouch infection. Thirteen had mucopurulent nasal discharge on presentation, and 3 were coughing. At follow-up, 12 horses treated with transpharyngeal diode laser fenestration had complete resolution of nasal discharge and coughing. One horse, despite resolution of guttural pouch infection on endoscopy, continued to have nasal discharge and coughing attributed to concurrent equine asthma syndrome. All owners expressed satisfaction with the surgical procedure and clinical resolution of guttural pouch infection.
This surgical technique for transpharyngeal diode laser fenestration of the guttural pouch was uncomplicated to perform and well tolerated in sedated horses and attributed to resolution of clinical signs associated with guttural pouch infection, and owners reported a high satisfaction with the clinical outcome. Implementing this surgical technique could be considered to hasten resolution of chronic guttural pouch disease in horses with few technique-related complications.
OBJECTIVE To describe clinical features, diagnostic methods, treatments, and outcomes associated with ingested wire foreign bodies in the abdomen of horses.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 16 client-owned horses with ingested wire in their abdomens that were evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital between April 2002 and February 2013.
PROCEDURES Data for each case were collected from medical records and owners and then reviewed. Differences in clinicopathologic variables between horses that did (survivors) or did not (nonsurvivors) survive to discharge from the hospital were assessed.
RESULTS The median duration of clinical signs prior to admission was 5.5 days (range, 0.5 to 1,095 days). Survivors (n = 4) had significantly lower median WBC count, neutrophil count, and plasma total protein concentration, compared with nonsurvivors (12), and all survivors underwent surgical treatment. Peritoneal fluid analysis revealed suppurative or septic peritonitis in all 8 horses tested. The presence of wire was confirmed by abdominal radiography (n = 6), exploratory laparotomy (2), and necropsy (8). The median length of ingested wire was 6 cm; wire had perforated viscera in 13 horses, 10 of which subsequently developed abdominal abscesses.
CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Abdominal perforation by wire should be considered a differential diagnosis for horses with peritonitis and abdominal abscesses. Radiography is useful for detection of wire foreign bodies in the abdomens of horses. Given the guarded prognosis for affected horses suggested by results of the present study, early and aggressive treatment, including exploratory laparotomy to retrieve the wire and address perforations, peritonitis, and abscesses, should be considered.
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharyngeal and laryngeal distribution of radiopaque contrast medium administered orally or via nasopharyngeal catheter to standing horses.
ANIMALS 5 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES A crossover study was conducted. Radiopaque contrast medium (12 mL) was administered orally and via nasopharyngeal catheter to each horse. Pharyngeal and laryngeal distribution of contrast medium was determined by examination of radiographs obtained immediately after administration of contrast medium, compared with those obtained before administration. Regional distribution of contrast medium was graded. Endoscopic examination of the nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, and larynx was performed to confirm radiographic results.
RESULTS Examination of radiographs obtained after nasopharyngeal administration revealed contrast medium in the nasopharynx (n = 5), oropharynx (2), laryngopharynx (3), and larynx (5) of the 5 horses. Examination of radiographs obtained after oral administration revealed contrast medium in the oropharynx (n = 4) and larynx (1) of the 5 horses. Endoscopic examination confirmed radiographic findings and was found to be sensitive for detection of contrast medium in the laryngopharynx, whereby detection rates were higher for both administration methods.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that medication administered by use of a nasopharyngeal catheter will result in topical distribution within the nasopharynx, including the dorsal surface of the soft palate, and larynx, although distribution should be evaluated in horses with clinical airway disease to confirm these findings. Oral administration did not result in consistently detectable topical laryngeal distribution but could be used for selected conditions (eg, palatitis).
Objective—To determine the oral bioavailability, single and multidose pharmacokinetics, and safety of silibinin, a milk thistle derivative, in healthy horses.
Animals—9 healthy horses.
Procedures—Horses were initially administered silibinin IV and silibinin phospholipid orally in feed and via nasogastric tube. Five horses then consumed increasing orally administered doses of silibinin phospholipid during 4 nonconsecutive weeks (0 mg/kg, 6.5 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, and 26 mg/kg of body weight, twice daily for 7 days each week).
Results—Bioavailability of orally administered silibinin phospholipid was 0.6% PO in feed and 2.9% via nasogastric tube. During the multidose phase, silibinin had nonlinear pharmacokinetics. Despite this, silibinin did not accumulate when given twice daily for 7 days at the evaluated doses. Dose-limiting toxicosis was not observed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Silibinin phospholipid was safe, although poorly bio-available, in horses. Further study is indicated in horses with hepatic disease.
Objective—To evaluate antioxidant capacity and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in horses fed silibinin complexed with phospholipid.
Animals—5 healthy horses.
Procedures—Horses consumed increasing orally administered doses of silibinin phospholipid during 4 nonconsecutive weeks (0 mg/kg, 6.5 mg/kg, 13 mg/kg, and 26 mg/kg of body weight, twice daily for 7 days each week). Dose-related changes in plasma antioxidant capacity, peripheral blood cell glutathione concentration and antioxidant enzyme activities, and blood cytokine gene expression were evaluated.
Results—Plasma antioxidant capacity increased throughout the study period with increasing dose. Red blood cell nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase I activity decreased significantly with increasing doses of silibinin phospholipid. No significant differences were identified in glutathione peroxidase activity, reduced glutathione or oxidized glutathione concentrations, or expression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1, or interleukin-2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Minor alterations in antioxidant capacity of healthy horses that consumed silibinin phospholipid occurred and suggest that further study in horses with liver disease is indicated.
Case Description—An 11-year-old Quarter Horse stallion was admitted for intermittent hemospermia of 4 years' duration.
Clinical Findings—A linear vertical defect had been detected endoscopically following multiple episodes of hemospermia on the caudodorsal convex surface of the urethra at the level of the ischial arch.
Treatment and Outcome—When sexual rest alone did not result in complete healing of the urethral defect, a subischial urethrotomy and buccal mucosal urethroplasty were performed. The surgical site healed without complication. Four months of sexual rest was recommended after surgery. Repeat endoscopy at 4 months allowed inspection of the urethral graft site. Following endoscopic examination, resumption of semen collection was recommended on the basis of the apparent healing at the urethral defect site. Hemospermia did not reoccur following surgical repair.
Clinical Relevance—Buccal mucosal urethroplasty resulted in a favorable outcome in a stallion with recurrent hemospermia. Buccal mucosal urethroplasty may be a useful surgical option in stallions that have hemospermia secondary to a urethral defect and do not heal with sexual rest alone.
OBJECTIVE To describe a minimally invasive 3-portal laparoscopic approach for elective ovariohysterectomy and the outcome of that procedure in a population of goats.
DESIGN Descriptive clinical study.
ANIMALS 16 healthy client-owned goats.
PROCEDURES Food but not water was withheld from all goats for 24 hours before the procedure. Goats were anesthetized and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Three laparoscopic portals were created in the caudoventral portion of the abdomen, and the abdomen was insufflated to a maximum pressure of 10 mm Hg. A blunt-tip vessel sealer and divider device was used to transect the left and right mesovarium and mesometrium and uterus, and the resected tissue was removed from the abdomen. After hemostasis was verified, the portals were closed in a routine manner and anesthesia was discontinued. Goats were discharged from the hospital 24 hours after the procedure, and owners were contacted by telephone or email to obtain short- and long-term follow-up information by use of standardized questions.
RESULTS All procedures were performed by a surgeon and assistant surgeon. The procedure was not complex and was easily learned. No intraoperative complications were reported, and only 1 goat required rescue analgesia post-operatively. No other postoperative complications were recorded. Median surgery time was 43 minutes (range, 20 to 65 minutes). All owners were satisfied with the outcome of the procedure, and several perceived that the procedure improved goat behavior.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that laparoscopic ovariohysterectomy was a viable alternative for elective sterilization of female goats.
Case Description—A 4-month-old Hampshire ram underwent open right inguinal herniorrhaphy and unilateral castration following herniation that developed after a kick injury. Seven months later, the ram was reevaluated because of scrotal swelling of 1 month's duration as well as suspected left inguinal hernia.
Clinical Findings—The ram had marked scrotal swelling. Palpation of the left testicle revealed no abnormalities. Ultrasonographic examination revealed heterogenous tissue within the cranial and medial portions of the scrotum with pronounced accumulation of hypoechoic fluid at the scrotal apex. Examination findings indicated left-sided indirect inguinal herniation of omentum.
Treatment and Outcome—To preserve fertility, left inguinal hernioplasty without castration was performed. The ram was anesthetized and placed in dorsal recumbency, and laparoscopic abdominal evaluation revealed omental entrapment within the left inguinal ring. The omentum was removed, and a polypropylene mesh was secured over the internal inguinal ring with an articulating hernia stapler. Following mesh placement, a dorsally based peritoneal flap was elevated and secured over the mesh repair. The ram recovered well from surgery; there was no repeated herniation following the surgical correction, and the ram was able to breed successfully without complication.
Clinical Relevance—Laparoscopic mesh hernioplasty can be successful in rams with inguinal hernias when preservation of fertility is preferred.
Case Description—5 Vietnamese potbellied pigs were evaluated for abdominal distress that had not responded to medical treatment (4 pigs) or a draining tract of the cranial abdomen of unknown duration (1 pig).
Clinical Findings—Clinical signs in the pigs included anorexia, vomiting, and constipation. Physical examination revealed a palpable abdominal mass in all pigs. Radiography revealed distended loops of small intestine in 2 pigs.
Treatment and Outcome—3 pigs were treated successfully with wide-margin excision of the abdominal masses, and 2 were euthanized. Primary tumors were diagnosed at necropsy or through histologic evaluation of biopsy specimens obtained during surgery. Types of tumor included cholangiocellular carcinoma, transmural gastric carcinoma, small intestinal adenocarcinoma, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and carcinoma. The tumors involved the stomach, small intestine, spiral colon, liver, and gall bladder. All 3 surgically treated pigs survived at least 9 months after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—Although rare, neoplasia of the alimentary system should be considered among the differential diagnoses for potbellied pigs with signs of abdominal distress. Wide-margin excision of the neoplastic tissue may result in a good outcome in affected pigs.
To assess signalment, clinical findings, and treatments for New World camelids (NWCs) hospitalized for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders and investigate associations between these factors and death during and after hospitalization.
267 NWCs ≤ 30 days of age.
Medical records of a veterinary teaching hospital were retrospectively reviewed to identify NWCs admitted for evaluation and treatment of neonatal disorders between 2000 and 2010. Signalment, physical examination data, diagnostic findings, treatments, and outcomes were recorded. Factors were examined for association with death during hospitalization and the overall hazard of death by use of multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards analysis, respectively.
The sample comprised alpacas (n = 255) and llamas (12). Median age at admission was 3 days, and median hospitalization time was 2 days; 208 of the 267 (77.9%) neonatal NWCs survived to hospital discharge. Factors associated with increased odds of death during hospitalization included prematurity or dysmaturity, hypothermia, sepsis, toxic changes in neutrophils, and undergoing surgery. The odds of death during hospitalization also increased as anion gap increased. After discharge, 151 of 176 (85.8%) animals had follow-up information available (median follow-up time, 2,932 days); 126 (83%) were alive and 25 (17%) had died. Prematurity or dysmaturity, congenital defects, sepsis, oxygen administration, and undergoing surgery as a neonate were associated with an increased hazard of death; the hazard of death also increased as serum chloride concentration at the time of hospitalization increased.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested the prognosis for survival during and after hospitalization is good for most NWCs hospitalized because of neonatal disorders.