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  • Author or Editor: Edward W. Kanara x
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The ability of monovalent and bivalent equine herpesvirus (EHV) vaccines to stimulate cellular and antibody responses to EHV-1 and EHV-4 was compared in healthy horses. Comparison of data from lymphocyte blastogenesis tests in which live viruses were used as antigens and that were conducted prior to vaccination and after 2 vaccinations revealed that horses given modified-live EHV-1 had significant increases in proliferative responses to EHV-1 (P = 0.03) and EHV- 4 (P = 0.04). Responses to EHV-1 and EHV-4 in horses given the inactivated-virus bivalent vaccine were less; however, significant differences were not noticed when postvaccinal lymphocyte blastogenesis tests were compared between the groups of vaccinees.

Interleukin-2 activity was not detected in leukocyte cultures from either group of vaccinees following stimulation with live EHV-1 or EHV-4; however, interferon activity was found in similar cultures from both groups of vaccinees. For EHV-4, interferon activity in cultures from both groups of vaccinees was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that in leukocyte cultures from unvaccinated controls.

Both vaccines induced significant (P < 0.05) increases in serum antibodies that neutralized EHV-1 infectivity. The ELISA for EHV-1 and EHV-4 antibodies revealed that both vaccines induced significant (P < 0.05) increases (compared with preinoculation values) in antibodies reactive with these 2 types of EHV. Total serum antibody responses, as measured by ELISA, to EHV-1 and EHV-4 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in horses that received the bivalent inactivated-virus vaccine, compared with that in horses that received monovalent vaccine. Evaluation of these data revealed that vaccination with modified-live EHV-1 can stimulate cellular and antibody responses that cross-react with EHV-4.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine comparative efficacy of vaccines administered IM and intranasally, used alone or sequentially, to protect puppies from infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica and determine whether systemic or mucosal antibody response correlated with protection.

Design—Randomized controlled trial.

Animals—50 specific-pathogen-free Beagle puppies.

Procedure—In 2 replicates of 25 dogs each, 14-weekold puppies that were vaccinated against canine distemper virus and parvovirus were vaccinated against B bronchiseptica via intranasal, IM, intranasal-IM, or IMintranasal administration or were unvaccinated controls. Puppies were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of B bronchiseptica 2 weeks after final vaccination. Clinical variables and systemic and mucosal antibody responses were monitored for 10 days after challenge exposure. Puppies in replicate 1 were necropsied for histologic and immunohistochemical studies.

Results—Control puppies that were seronegative before challenge exposure developed paroxysmal coughing, signs of depression, anorexia, and fever. Vaccinated puppies (either vaccine) that were seronegative before challenge exposure had fewer clinical signs. Puppies that received both vaccines had the least severe clinical signs and fewest lesions in the respiratory tract. Vaccinated dogs had significantly higher concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive antibodies in serum saliva before and after challenge. Antibody concentrations were negatively correlated with bacterial growth in nasal cavity and pharyngeal samples after challenge exposure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Parenterally and intranasally administered vaccines containing B bronchiseptica may provide substantial protection from clinical signs of respiratory tract disease associated with infection by this bacterium. Administration of both types of vaccines in sequence afforded the greatest degree of protection against disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:367–375)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Fever, limb edema, and laminitis were observed in horses 18 to 36 hours after they consumed hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana) under field and experimental conditions. Clinical signs were not observed in all horses that had ingested the plant. Diagnosis in the field cases was limited to observation of clinical signs and evidence of plant ingestion in hay or on pasture. In most cases, clinical remission was observed 2 to 4 days after empirical treatment, removal of the plant source, or both.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association