Objective—To compare efficacy of 3 regimens of
orally administered sedatives and determine physiologic
effects of 1 of these regimens in healthy cats.
Design—Prospective randomized study.
Procedure—Cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups that
were treated by oral administration of detomidine and
ketamine, xylazine and ketamine, or medetomidine
and ketamine. Cats were monitored for degree of
sedation at 5-minute intervals for 60 minutes.
Physiologic effects in cats treated with detomidine
and ketamine were measured at 5-minute intervals
for 30 minutes and compared with effects in cats
treated IM with detomidine and ketamine or xylazine
Results—All cats treated orally with detomidine and
ketamine became laterally recumbent; sedation was
more variable in the other 2 groups treated orally.
Vomiting and excessive salivation were the only
adverse effects. Bradycardia (heart rate < 145
beats/min) was detected at each evaluation time in
cats treated orally with detomidine and ketamine and
in all cats treated IM. Minimal differences among
groups were detected for heart and respiratory rates,
rectal temperature, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Oral administration
of detomidine and ketamine is an effective
method of sedating healthy cats and induces minimal
physiologic effects that are similar to those resulting
from IM administration of sedatives. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To evaluate the reliability of an SC implanted osmotic pump (OP) for fentanyl administration in cats and to compare serum concentrations of fentanyl delivered via an OP and a transdermal patch (TP).
Animals—8 spayed female cats.
Procedures—In a crossover design, cats received fentanyl at 25 μg/h via a TP or an OP. All cats were anesthetized for the pump or patch placement (0 hours) and again when it was removed (96 hours). Venous blood samples were collected for measurement of serum fentanyl concentrations at 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 hours and at 24 and 48 hours after device removal. After a 3-week washout period, the experiment was repeated with each cat receiving the other treatment.
Results—Mean serum fentanyl concentrations at 24, 36, 72, and 96 hours were greater when the OP was used than when the TP was used. Mean residence time and half-life were greater when the TP was used. Fentanyl concentration changed significantly faster in initial and elimination phases when the OP was used. Marked interindividual variation in serum fentanyl concentrations was evident with both administration methods. No adverse effects were evident with either method.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the OP to administer fentanyl to cats resulted in a shorter initial lag phase to a therapeutic serum concentration, higher bioavailability, and faster elimination after removal, compared with use of a TP. These advantages, in addition to the inability of cats to remove the OP, may make OPs useful for fentanyl administration in nondomestic felids.
Objective—To compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus).
Animals—7 captive and 9 wild adult (≥ 4 years old) black bears.
Procedure—Blood was collected from 2 groups of captive black bears (groups A and B) and 1 group of wild black bears (group C). Blood triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were compared among groups. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated by use of a self-generating gradient of iodixanol, and lipoprotein patterns were compared between groups A and B.
Results—Captive bears (mean ± SD, 187.8 ± 44.4 kg) weighed significantly more than wild bears (mean, 104.8 ± 41.4 kg), but mean body weight did not differ between groups A and B. Mean blood TG concentrations for groups B (216.8 ± 16.0 mg/dL) and C (190.7 ± 34.0 mg/dL) were significantly higher than that of group A (103.9 ± 25.3 mg/dL). Mean blood cholesterol concentration was also significantly higher for group B (227.8 ± 8.2 mg/dL) than for groups A (171.7 ± 35.5 mg/dL) or C (190.8 ± 26.8 mg/dL). Mean very-low-density lipoprotein TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, for group B, compared with concentrations for group A.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood lipid concentrations vary significantly among populations of black bears. Plasma lipoprotein patterns of captive bears differed significantly between colonies and may have reflected differences in diet or management practices.
Objective—To evaluate the use of scintigraphy involving
technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic
acid (99mTc-DTPA) or technetium Tc 99m
dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) for the determination
of kidney morphology and function in green
iguanas ( Iguana iguana ).
Animals—10 healthy iguanas weighing > 1.6 kg.
Procedure—Renal scintigraphy was performed by
use of 99mTc-DTPA in 6 of the iguanas and by use of
99mTc-DMSA in all 10 iguanas. After the injection of
99mTc-DMSA, scans were performed for each iguana at
intervals during a 20-hour period. Renal biopsies were
performed in all 10 iguanas after the final scintigraphic
Results—In iguanas, the use of 99mTc-DTPA for renal
scintigraphy was nondiagnostic because of serum
protein binding and poor renal uptake of the isotope;
mean ± SD 99mTc-DTPA bound to serum proteins was
48.9 ± 9.9%. Renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA produced
distinct visualization of both kidneys. Renal uptake
and soft tissue clearance of 99mTc-DMSA increased
over the 20-hour imaging period; mean ± SD renal
uptake of 99mTc-DMSA was 11.31 ± 3.06% at 20 hours.
In each of the 10 iguanas, ultrasonographic and histologic
examinations of biopsy specimens from both
kidneys revealed no abnormalities.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate
that the kidneys of iguanas can be evaluated
scintigraphically by use of 99mTc-DMSA; this technique
may be potentially useful for the diagnosis of renal
failure in iguanas. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:87–92)
OBJECTIVE To investigate use of the plethysmographic variability index (PVI) and perfusion index (PI) for evaluating changes in arterial blood pressure in anesthetized tigers (Panthera tigris).
ANIMALS 8 adult tigers.
PROCEDURES Each tiger was anesthetized once with a combination of ketamine, midazolam, medetomidine, and isoflurane. Anesthetic monitoring included assessment of PI, PVI, direct blood pressure measurements, anesthetic gas concentrations, esophageal temperature, and results of capnography and ECG. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was maintained for at least 20 minutes at each of the following blood pressure conditions: hypotensive (MAP = 50 ± 5 mm Hg), normotensive (MAP = 70 ± 5 mm Hg), and hypertensive (MAP = 90 ± 5 mm Hg). Arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the beginning of anesthesia and at each blood pressure condition.
RESULTS Mean ± SD PI values were 1.82 ± 2.38%, 1.17 ± 0.77%, and 1.71 ± 1.51% and mean PVI values were 16.00 ± 5.07%, 10.44 ± 3.55%, and 8.17 ± 3.49% for hypotensive, normotensive, and hypertensive conditions, respectively. The PI values did not differ significantly among blood pressure conditions. The PVI value for the hypotensive condition differed significantly from values for the normotensive and hypertensive conditions. The PVI values were significantly correlated with MAP (r = −0.657). The OR of hypotension to nonhypotension for PVI values ≥ 18% was 43.6.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE PVI was a clinically applicable variable determined by use of noninvasive methods in anesthetized tigers. Values of PVI ≥ 18% may indicate hypotension.
Case Description—A 5-month-old captive female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was evaluated because of lethargy, signs of depression, azotemia, and erythema of the skin around the eyes.
Clinical Findings—Antemortem diagnostic tests revealed renal disease but failed to identify an etiologic agent. A diagnosis of severe nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis was made on the basis of results of histologic examination of renal biopsy specimens.
Treatment and Outcome—The skunk was administered isotonic fluids SC daily and later every other day because of the handling-related stress. Because of the skunk's deteriorating condition, it was euthanized after 24 days of supportive care. Aleutian disease was diagnosed on the basis of positive results of a PCR assay that targeted the DNA from Aleutian disease virus (ADV); positive results for ADV were also obtained by use of plasma counterimmunoelectrophoresis and an ELISA. Genetic sequencing of the 365-base pair PCR product revealed 90% sequence identity with mink ADV.
Clinical Relevance—In the skunk of this report, infection with a skunk-specific parvovirus resulted in clinical signs and pathologic changes similar to those associated with ADV infection in mink. For skunks with signs of renal failure, differential diagnoses should include parvovirus infection. In confirmed cases of infection with this ADV-like virus, appropriate quarantine and biosecurity measures should be in place to prevent spread to other susceptible animals within a zoological collection.