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Summary

A cross-sectional epidemiologic study was conducted to evaluate two objectives. The first was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of large animal (dairy) veterinarians, dairy farmers, and daily processors in Michigan toward the use of bovine somatotropin (bst). The second was to compare and contrast the data from the large animal veterinarians, dairy farmers, and dairy processors according to the knowledge, attitude, and behavior variables.

A written questionnaire was used as an instrument to collect data relating to the objectives. Three basic types of questions were asked of each group: (1) how much do you know about bst? (knowledge-based question), (2) how do you feel about bst? (attitudebased question), and (3) how would you use bst or use dairy products produced through bst biotechnology (behavior-based question)?

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the geographic distribution of deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) was associated with the distribution of dogs seropositive for various tick-transmitted disease organisms (ie, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] agent, Ehrlichia canis, and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii).

Design—Serologic survey.

Sample Population—Serum samples from 277 dogs in animal shelters and veterinary hospitals in Rhode Island.

Results—Overall, 143 (52%) dogs were seropositive for B burgdorferi, 59 (21.3%) were seropositive for R rickettsii, 40 (14.4%) were seropositive for the HGE agent, 8 (2.9%) were seropositive for E canis, and 6 (2.2%) were seropositive for B vinsonii. Regression analysis indicated that the natural logarithm of nymphal deer tick abundance was correlated with rate of seropositivity to the HGE agent and to B burgdorferi but not to rate of seropositivity to R rickettsii, E canis, or B vinsonii. Percentages of samples seropositive for B burgdorferi, R rickettsii, the HGE agent, and E canis were significantly higher for samples from the southwestern part of the state where ticks in general and deer ticks in particular are abundant than for samples from the northern and eastern portions of the state, where ticks are relatively rare.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that all 5 disease agents are in Rhode Island and pose a risk to dogs and humans. Knowledge concerning tick distributions may be useful in predicting the pattern of disease associated with particular tick species and may aid diagnostic, prevention, and control efforts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1092–1097)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the diversity of Salmonella serotypes isolated from a large population of cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Sample PopulationSalmonella organisms isolated from the cecal-colon contents of 5,087 market dairy cows.

Procedure—During winter and summer 1996, cecalcolon contents of cull dairy cows at slaughter were obtained from 5 US slaughter establishments. Specimens were subjected to microbiologic culturing for Salmonella spp at 1 laboratory. Identified isolates were compared with Salmonella isolation lists published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) for approximately the same period. The Simpson diversity index was used to calculate the likelihood that Salmonella isolates selected randomly by establishment were different.

Results—Of 58 Salmonella serotypes identified, Salmonella ser. Montevideo was the most prevalent. Two of the top 10 CDC serotypes identified from humans in 1996, Salmonella ser. Typhimurium and S Montevideo, appeared on our top 10 list; 8 of the top 10 were found on NVSL listings. Thirty-one of 59 S Typhimurium isolates were identified as DT104 and found at a west slaughter establishment, 30 during the winter and 1 during the summer. The greatest diversity of serotypes was at a southeast establishment during the summer; the least diversity was at a central establishment in the winter.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—58 Salmonella serotypes were isolated from market dairy cows at slaughter and could pose a threat for food-borne illness. Salmonella Montevideo was the most frequently isolated serotype and may contribute substantially to salmonellosis in dairy cattle. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1216–1220)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the prevalence of Salmonella spp in the cecal-colon contents of cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter because of potential public health ramifications.

Design—Survey study.

Sample Population—Cecal-colon contents collected from 5,087 cull (market) dairy cows at slaughter at 5 slaughter establishments across the United States.

Procedure—During 2 periods of the year, winter (January and February) and summer (July through September), 5 cull (market) cow slaughter establishments in the United States—west (WE), southeast (SEE), central (CE), north central (NCE), and south central (SCE)—establishments were visited, and cecalcolon contents of cull dairy cows were obtained at the time of slaughter. Samples were examined by microbiologic culture at a single laboratory for Salmonella spp.

ResultsSalmonella spp were detected in 23.1% of cecal-colon content samples from cull dairy cows across the 5 slaughter establishments. The highest site prevalence (54.5%) was detected at the WE during the summer period, whereas the lowest was found at the CE during the summer (4.3%) and at the NCE during the winter (4.5%). Considerable variation in the daily prevalence of Salmonella spp was found, particularly at the WE and the SCE. Salmonella spp were isolated from 93% of cecal-colon contents collected on a summer day at the WE.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results strongly suggest that there is a high prevalence of Salmonella spp in cull dairy cows at slaughter, which could burden Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs implemented in slaughter establishments. Procedures to reduce Salmonella load at the dairy farm and during transport to slaughter could reduce the risk of spread during the slaughter process. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1212–1215)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association