Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 29 items for

  • Author or Editor: Edward B. Breitschwerdt x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the practices and perceptions of veterinarians in North Carolina regarding borreliosis in dogs in various geographic regions of the state.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—Data from 208 completed surveys.

Procedures—Surveys were distributed to veterinary clinics throughout North Carolina. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize perceptions pertaining to borreliosis among dogs in North Carolina.

Results—A significantly higher proportion of responding veterinarians believed that borreliosisis was endemic in the coastal (67.2%) and Piedmont (60.9%) areas of North Carolina, compared with more western regions (37.5%). The 3 variables found to be significantly different between the northern and southern regions of the state were the estimated number of borreliosis cases diagnosed by each responding veterinary clinic during the past year, the perception of borreliosis endemicity, and the perceptions related to the likelihood of a dog acquiring borreliosis in the state.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians’ perception of the risk of borreliosis in North Carolina was consistent with recent scientific reports pertaining to geographic expansion of borreliosis in the state. As knowledge of the epidemiological features of borreliosis in North Carolina continues to evolve, veterinarians should promote routine screening of dogs for Borrelia burgdorferi exposure as a simple, inexpensive form of surveillance that can be used to better educate their clients on the threat of transmission of borreliosis in this transitional geographic region.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess the potential clinical relevance of seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae antigens in dogs.

Animals—40 dogs seroreactive to B henselae and 45 dogs that did not seroreact to B henselae.

Procedure—A case-control study was conducted. Clinical and clinicopathologic findings were extracted from medical records of each dog.

Results—Statistical differences were not detected between dogs seroreactive or nonseroreactive to B henselae when analyzed on the basis of disease category or results of hematologic, biochemical, urine, or cytologic analysis. However, seroreactivity to B henselae antigens was detected in 2 of 4 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of granulomatous meningoencephalitis, 3 of 4 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, 3 of 4 dogs with infective endocarditis, 2 of 3 dogs with lymphoid neoplasia, and 5 of 10 dogs with polyarthritis. Additionally, seroreactivity to B henselae antigens was detected in 18 of 34 thrombocytopenic dogs and 14 of 27 dogs with neutrophilia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant associations were not detected between seroreactivity to B henselae and various diseases. Prospective epidemiologic studies investigating specific diseases, such as meningoencephalitis or polyarthritis, and specific hematologic abnormalities, such as immunemediated hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia, should be conducted to further define the potential clinical relevance of antibodies against B henselae in dogs.

Impact for Human MedicineBartonella organisms are increasingly reported as pathogens that induce are increasingly reported as pathogens that induce chronic infections in humans and dogs. Dogs may serve as natural candidates for future study of the disease in humans. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2060–2064)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether Haemobartonella canis and Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly known as H felis [large form]) can be differentiated by use of comparative analysis of gene sequences.

Sample Population—Blood samples obtained from 3 dogs infected with H canis and 2 cats infected with M haemofelis.

Procedure—The partial 16S rDNA and ribonuclease P RNA (RNase P) genes were amplified, cloned, and sequenced in blood samples obtained from H canis-infected dogs and M haemofelis-infected cats. The DNA sequences were subjected to comparative analysis.

Results—The 16S rDNA sequences of H canis and M haemofelis were nearly identical (homology of 99.3 to 99.7%). In contrast, RNase P gene sequences had a lower degree of sequence homology between the 2 organisms (94.3 to 95.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceHaemobartonella canis and M haemofelis are not identical organisms. Molecular differentiation of H canis and M haemofelis is more clearly evident by use of comparative analysis of RNase P gene sequences than by comparative analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequences. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1385–1388)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify the geographic distribution of babesiosis among dogs in the United States and determine, for dogs other than American Pit Bull Terriers (APBTs), whether infection was associated with a recent dog bite.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—150 dogs.

Procedure—Canine blood samples submitted to the North Carolina State University Vector-Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between May 2000 and October 2003 for which results of a Babesia-specific polymerase chain reaction assay were positive were identified, and breed and geographic origin of dogs from which samples were obtained were recorded. History and hematologic abnormalities for dogs that were not APBTs were recorded, and possible associations with a recent dog bite were examined.

Results—Dogs positive for Babesia DNA were located in 29 states and 1 Canadian province (Ontario). Babesia gibsoni was the most commonly detected species, with B gibsoni DNA detected in blood samples from 131 of 144 (91%) dogs. Of the 131 dogs positive for B gibsoni DNA, 122 (93%) were APBTs. Of the 10 dogs positive for Babesia canis vogeli DNA, 6 were Greyhounds. In dogs other than APBTs, there was an association between having recently been bitten by another dog, particularly an APBT, and infection with B gibsoni.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results document an expansion of the known geographic range for babesiosis among dogs in the United States. Testing for babesiosis should be pursued in dogs with clinicopathologic abnormalities consistent with immunemediated hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia, particularly if there is a history of a recent dog bite. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:942–947)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether the geographic distribution of deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis) was associated with the distribution of dogs seropositive for various tick-transmitted disease organisms (ie, Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia rickettsii, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] agent, Ehrlichia canis, and Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii).

Design—Serologic survey.

Sample Population—Serum samples from 277 dogs in animal shelters and veterinary hospitals in Rhode Island.

Results—Overall, 143 (52%) dogs were seropositive for B burgdorferi, 59 (21.3%) were seropositive for R rickettsii, 40 (14.4%) were seropositive for the HGE agent, 8 (2.9%) were seropositive for E canis, and 6 (2.2%) were seropositive for B vinsonii. Regression analysis indicated that the natural logarithm of nymphal deer tick abundance was correlated with rate of seropositivity to the HGE agent and to B burgdorferi but not to rate of seropositivity to R rickettsii, E canis, or B vinsonii. Percentages of samples seropositive for B burgdorferi, R rickettsii, the HGE agent, and E canis were significantly higher for samples from the southwestern part of the state where ticks in general and deer ticks in particular are abundant than for samples from the northern and eastern portions of the state, where ticks are relatively rare.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that all 5 disease agents are in Rhode Island and pose a risk to dogs and humans. Knowledge concerning tick distributions may be useful in predicting the pattern of disease associated with particular tick species and may aid diagnostic, prevention, and control efforts. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1092–1097)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old 32.5-kg (71.5-lb) sexually intact male foxhound-Treeing Walker Coonhound cross was evaluated because of a 2.5-month history of dermatologic lesions, weight loss, and diarrhea.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed muscle wasting, lymphadenopathy, and multifocal pruritic dermatologic lesions of alopecia, thickening, erythema, and follicular casting. Hematologic and serum biochemical analyses revealed nonregenerative anemia, mono-cytosis, hypercalcemia, hyperproteinemia, and hyperglobulinemia. Proteinuria was identified on urinalysis. Hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and diffuse abdominal lymphadenomegaly were detected on abdominal ultrasonography. A diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by ELISA detection of serum antibodies against Leishmania spp, a high serum indirect fluorescent antibody titer (1:1,024) against Leishmania infantum, amplification of Leishmania DNA on PCR assay of a whole blood sample and a lymph node aspirate, and histologic identification of suspected Leishmania amastigotes in skin specimens. In addition, the dog had a low CD4+:CD8+ lymphocyte ratio of 1:1.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog was euthanized because of the severity of leishmaniasis and poor prognosis. This dog was from a litter of 10 puppies that included 4 stillborn puppies, 2 puppies that died as neonates, and 1 littermate that was euthanized at 1 year of age because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. Eventually the foxhound dam was euthanized because of a high serum antibody titer against Leishmania spp. The dog had been raised with an unaffected littermate, its sire, and an unrelated Treeing Walker Coonhound female that were seronegative for Leishmania infection.

Clinical Relevance—Although vertical disease transmission was suspected, it is possible that L infantum is now endemic in Colorado. Leishmaniasis should be considered in dogs with scaly dermatoses.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association