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  • Author or Editor: Edward B. Breitschwerdt x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess the potential clinical relevance of seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae antigens in dogs.

Animals—40 dogs seroreactive to B henselae and 45 dogs that did not seroreact to B henselae.

Procedure—A case-control study was conducted. Clinical and clinicopathologic findings were extracted from medical records of each dog.

Results—Statistical differences were not detected between dogs seroreactive or nonseroreactive to B henselae when analyzed on the basis of disease category or results of hematologic, biochemical, urine, or cytologic analysis. However, seroreactivity to B henselae antigens was detected in 2 of 4 dogs with a clinical diagnosis of granulomatous meningoencephalitis, 3 of 4 dogs with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, 3 of 4 dogs with infective endocarditis, 2 of 3 dogs with lymphoid neoplasia, and 5 of 10 dogs with polyarthritis. Additionally, seroreactivity to B henselae antigens was detected in 18 of 34 thrombocytopenic dogs and 14 of 27 dogs with neutrophilia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant associations were not detected between seroreactivity to B henselae and various diseases. Prospective epidemiologic studies investigating specific diseases, such as meningoencephalitis or polyarthritis, and specific hematologic abnormalities, such as immunemediated hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia, should be conducted to further define the potential clinical relevance of antibodies against B henselae in dogs.

Impact for Human MedicineBartonella organisms are increasingly reported as pathogens that induce are increasingly reported as pathogens that induce chronic infections in humans and dogs. Dogs may serve as natural candidates for future study of the disease in humans. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2060–2064)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the practices and perceptions of veterinarians in North Carolina regarding borreliosis in dogs in various geographic regions of the state.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample—Data from 208 completed surveys.

Procedures—Surveys were distributed to veterinary clinics throughout North Carolina. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize perceptions pertaining to borreliosis among dogs in North Carolina.

Results—A significantly higher proportion of responding veterinarians believed that borreliosisis was endemic in the coastal (67.2%) and Piedmont (60.9%) areas of North Carolina, compared with more western regions (37.5%). The 3 variables found to be significantly different between the northern and southern regions of the state were the estimated number of borreliosis cases diagnosed by each responding veterinary clinic during the past year, the perception of borreliosis endemicity, and the perceptions related to the likelihood of a dog acquiring borreliosis in the state.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians’ perception of the risk of borreliosis in North Carolina was consistent with recent scientific reports pertaining to geographic expansion of borreliosis in the state. As knowledge of the epidemiological features of borreliosis in North Carolina continues to evolve, veterinarians should promote routine screening of dogs for Borrelia burgdorferi exposure as a simple, inexpensive form of surveillance that can be used to better educate their clients on the threat of transmission of borreliosis in this transitional geographic region.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To determine persistence of bacteremia, pathogenicity, and immunoglobulin kinetics after blood transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats.

Animals

18 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) cats (16 weeks old) received blood or urine from 4 adult cats (2 SPF, 2 naturally infected with B henselae).

Procedure

SPF cats were inoculated with blood IV (n = 4), blood IM (n = 4), or urine sediment IM (n = 4) from 2 bacteremic cats (donors A and B). Control cats (2/route) received inoculum from culture-negative, seronegative SPF cats (donors C and D).

Results

6 cats (5 blood, 1 urine) were transiently febrile during the 213-day observation period. Two bacteremic cats developed CNS abnormalities. Transient anemia was the only hematologic abnormality. Bacteremia was induced in 7 of 8 blood recipients by postinoculation day (PID) 11. Urine recipients (n = 6) did not become bacteremic or seroconvert by PID 108, but when challenge exposed IV with blood, 4 of 6 became infected. All infected cats developed relapsing bacteremia. Initially, colony counts for donor-A recipients were 103 greater than those for donor-B recipients; however, during relapses, counts were similar. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA gene and the intergenic spacer region revealed no differences among isolates derived from recipient cats. Bartonella henselae-specific antibodies were detected between PID 15 and 18 in donor-A, compared with PID 46 and 181 in donor-B recipients. The peak geometric mean titer of donor-A recipients was 1,448, versus 406 for donor-B recipients.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Blood transmission of B henselae induced subtle clinical abnormalities; the biological behavior of the 2 donor strains differed; and relapsing bacteremia can persist in conjunction with variably high antibody titers. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:492–497)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether Haemobartonella canis and Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly known as H felis [large form]) can be differentiated by use of comparative analysis of gene sequences.

Sample Population—Blood samples obtained from 3 dogs infected with H canis and 2 cats infected with M haemofelis.

Procedure—The partial 16S rDNA and ribonuclease P RNA (RNase P) genes were amplified, cloned, and sequenced in blood samples obtained from H canis-infected dogs and M haemofelis-infected cats. The DNA sequences were subjected to comparative analysis.

Results—The 16S rDNA sequences of H canis and M haemofelis were nearly identical (homology of 99.3 to 99.7%). In contrast, RNase P gene sequences had a lower degree of sequence homology between the 2 organisms (94.3 to 95.5%).

Conclusions and Clinical RelevanceHaemobartonella canis and M haemofelis are not identical organisms. Molecular differentiation of H canis and M haemofelis is more clearly evident by use of comparative analysis of RNase P gene sequences than by comparative analysis of 16S rDNA gene sequences. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1385–1388)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify the geographic distribution of babesiosis among dogs in the United States and determine, for dogs other than American Pit Bull Terriers (APBTs), whether infection was associated with a recent dog bite.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—150 dogs.

Procedure—Canine blood samples submitted to the North Carolina State University Vector-Borne Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between May 2000 and October 2003 for which results of a Babesia-specific polymerase chain reaction assay were positive were identified, and breed and geographic origin of dogs from which samples were obtained were recorded. History and hematologic abnormalities for dogs that were not APBTs were recorded, and possible associations with a recent dog bite were examined.

Results—Dogs positive for Babesia DNA were located in 29 states and 1 Canadian province (Ontario). Babesia gibsoni was the most commonly detected species, with B gibsoni DNA detected in blood samples from 131 of 144 (91%) dogs. Of the 131 dogs positive for B gibsoni DNA, 122 (93%) were APBTs. Of the 10 dogs positive for Babesia canis vogeli DNA, 6 were Greyhounds. In dogs other than APBTs, there was an association between having recently been bitten by another dog, particularly an APBT, and infection with B gibsoni.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results document an expansion of the known geographic range for babesiosis among dogs in the United States. Testing for babesiosis should be pursued in dogs with clinicopathologic abnormalities consistent with immunemediated hemolytic anemia or thrombocytopenia, particularly if there is a history of a recent dog bite. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:942–947)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association