Objective—To study radiographic and genetic aspects of hereditary radial head subluxation in Bouviers des Flandres.
Animals—26 related Bouviers des Flandres affected with bilateral subluxation of the radial head, 10 unaffected related dogs, and 29 unrelated Bouviers des Flandres with diagnoses of nonskeletal diseases.
Procedures—All dogs were radiographically studied, and their DNA was analyzed with a genome-wide screen of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In addition, karyotyping was performed in an unaffected dam and its affected offspring.
Results—Both forelimbs of affected dogs were disproportionately short with caudolateral subluxation or luxation of the radial head. Angulation of the radial axis at the mid-diaphysis ranged from 9.3° to 30.3° (mean ± SD, 14.9 ± 6.1°), with an estimated age of onset from 0 to 4 months. Poorly defined medial coronoid processes and osteoarthritis of the elbow joint, cranial bowing of the olecranon, and disturbed growth in length of the ulna with sharply demarcated spurs were noticed on radiographs of affected dogs. Genealogical analysis indicated that most affected dogs were closely related, but the mode of inheritance was not clear. The DNA analysis found that 205 single nucleotide polymorphisms were monomorphic in the affected dogs. Conventional chromosome staining revealed no numerical chromosomal aberration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Congenital radial head luxation and subluxation in the studied Bouviers des Flandres were characterized by angulation of the radial axis leading to caudolateral subluxation of the radial head and insufficient growth of the distal portion of the ulna together with cranial bowing of the olecranon.
Objective—To compare the results of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) caused by histologically confirmed pituitary adenoma.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—11 dogs with PDH that underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs examined between January 2001 and March 2003 were reviewed. Dogs were included in this study if they had clinical signs of hypercortisolism at the time of admission (for which PDH was diagnosed) and underwent transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Pre- and postcontrast CT and low-field MRI (0.2-Tesla magnet) were performed on the same day as surgery for each dog.
Results—An abnormal pituitary gland was found in 7 dogs by use of MRI and in the same 7 dogs by use of CT. Significant differences were found between postcontrast CT and MR images for height, width, and length of the pituitary gland; brain area; and thickness of the sphenoid bone. However, the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio determined from postcontrast CT and MR images was not significantly different. The signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio of pre- and postcontrast MR images were significantly higher than those of the CT images.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low-field MRI and dynamic CT imaging of the pituitary gland provided comparable information on the presence of pituitary adenomas in dogs with PDH.
Objective—To assess whether the Pfirrmann system for grading lumbar intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration in humans can also be used in dogs.
Procedures—Magnetic resonance imaging was used to obtain images of vertebral segments from dogs, which were reviewed separately by 3 observers who graded the extent of degeneration in each visible IVD by use of the Pfirrmann classification system used for grading lumbar IVD degeneration in humans. Grading was validated against 2 factors associated with the extent of disk degeneration: type of dog (chondrodystrophic or nonchondrodystrophic breeds) and age.
Results—Interobserver and intraobserver agreement for Pfirrmann grading of IVD degeneration were good (κ scores, 0.81 to 0.93). An increase in the extent of disk degeneration was positively correlated with increases in age and with chondrodystrophic breed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The Pfirrmann system was reliably used to grade IVD degeneration in dogs of various breeds and ages. An increase in the extent of IVD degeneration was positively correlated with increases in age and with chondrodystrophic-type dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the reliability of the Thompson system for use in grading the gross pathological changes of intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration in dogs and to investigate the agreement between gross pathological findings and low-field (0.2-T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.
Sample—Vertebral columns from cadavers of 19 dogs of various ages, breeds, and origins.
Procedures—182 intervertebral segments were collected from 19 canine cadavers. Sagittal T2-weighted MRI of the T11 through S1 portion of the vertebral column was performed within 24 hours after the dogs were euthanized. The vertebral columns were subsequently divided in the midsagittal plane, and high-resolution photographs were obtained of each intervertebral segment (end plate—disk—end plate). The MRI images and photographs were graded separately in a blinded manner by 4 observers who used both Pfirrmann and Thompson grading criteria.
Results—The interobserver agreement for Thompson scores ranged from 0.76 to 0.88, and the intraobserver agreement ranged from 0.88 to 0.94 (Cohen weighted κ analysis). Agreement between scores for the Pfirrmann and Thompson grading criteria was κ = 0.70.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Grading of IVD degeneration in dogs by use of the Thompson system resulted in high interobserver and intraobserver agreement, and scores for the Thompson system had substantial agreement with low-field MRI findings graded by use of the Pfirrmann system. This suggested that low-field MRI can be used to diagnose IVD degeneration in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To determine survival estimates and outcome predictors for shelter cats with feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infection.
DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.
ANIMALS 177 shelter cats with FPV infection.
PROCEDURES Medical records of cats treated for FPV infection from 2011 through 2013 were reviewed to collect information pertaining to signalment; history; results of physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and blood gas analysis; and treatments (antimicrobials, antiparasitics, antivirals, antiemetics, analgesics, crystalloid or colloid solutions, and blood products). Survival time and outcome predictors were determined by means of Kaplan-Meier estimation, logistic regression, and mixed-model ANOVA.
RESULTS Median survival time after hospital admission was 3 days; 20.3% (36/177) of cats survived to discharge from the hospital. Risk of nonsurvival was greater in cats with (vs without) signs of lethargy, rectal temperature < 37.9°C (I00.2°F), or low body weight at hospital admission. Lower (vs higher) leukocyte count on days 3,4, and 7 of hospitalization, but not at admission, was associated with nonsurvival. Amoxicillin–clavulanic acid, antiparasitics, and maropitant but not interferon-ω were associated with survival, whereas glucose infusion was associated with nonsurvival.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that FPV infection carried a poor prognosis for shelter cats. Several variables measured at admission or during hospitalization were associated with outcome. Remarkably and contrary to the existing literature, leukopenia at admission had no association with outcome, possibly owing to early prevention of complications.