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Abstract

Objective—To estimate contact rates and movement variables for shipments of beef cattle to and from producer premises in California.

Design—Cross-sectional survey.

Sample Population—583 beef producers in California.

Procedures—Questionnaires were developed and distributed to beef cattle producers in California. The study period was from April 20, 2005, through September 7, 2006. Data from completed questionnaires were entered manually into an electronic format. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed.

Results—Median number of interstate animal movements (movement of cattle into or out of California) was 0.17/mo; on the basis of this median, beef cattle were moved interstate > 2 times/y. Respondents kept beef cattle at up to 5 locations throughout the year. More than 40% of the movements from the respondents' premises were to a sale yard or auction facility.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Frequency of animal movements in this statewide study differed from values in another study of monthly shipments of animals to and from beef operations in 3 counties of California. The survey reported here revealed more frequent movements of animals to and from beef operations of all sizes. In addition, there were more high-risk indirect contacts on beef operations than has been reported previously. However, the number of low-risk indirect contacts was similar for small beef operations but less for large beef operations than has been reported elsewhere. Epidemic simulation models for California based on data in earlier studies likely underpredicted disease transmission involving beef herds.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize husbandry practices that could affect the risks of foreign animal disease in miniature swine.

Design—Survey study.

Study Population—106 owners of miniature swine.

Procedures—An online survey of owners of miniature swine was conducted to obtain information about miniature pig and owner demographics; pig husbandry; movements of pigs; and pig contacts with humans, other miniature swine, and livestock.

Results—12 states, 106 premises, and 317 miniature swine were represented in the survey. More than a third (35%) of miniature swine owners also owned other livestock species. Regular contact with livestock species at other premises was reported by 13% of owners. More than a third of owners visited shows or fairs (39%) and club or association events (37%) where miniature swine were present. More than 40% of owners fed food waste to miniature swine. Approximately half (48%) of the veterinarians providing health care for miniature swine were in mixed-animal practice.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated that miniature swine kept as pets can be exposed, directly and indirectly, to feed and other livestock, potentially introducing, establishing, or spreading a foreign animal disease such as foot-and-mouth disease. In addition, the veterinary services and carcass disposal methods used by miniature swine owners may reduce the likelihood of sick or dead pigs undergoing ante- or postmortem examination by a veterinarian.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Antibiograms are collections of antimicrobial susceptibility data for a particular bacterial organism and host species. Antibiograms are important tools for antimicrobial stewardship, as they may be used to guide empiric antimicrobial therapy and assess trends in antimicrobial resistance, maximizing treatment success and preserving the efficacy of currently available pharmaceuticals. Targeted use of antimicrobials is critically important to minimize the spread of antimicrobial resistance, which may be conveyed between animals and humans directly but may also be spread through the environment and ecological niches, such as soil, water, and wildlife reservoirs. To effectively utilize antibiograms as part of a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship plan, veterinarians need to know data characteristics, including the source population, body site (when possible), and number of isolates included, in addition to the animal species and bacterial organisms for which each breakpoint was developed. Although widely used in human health systems, antibiograms are not often available in veterinary medicine. This paper describes antibiogram creation and use, discusses antibiogram development by US veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and shares California’s process to create and promote livestock antibiograms. The companion Currents in One Health article by Burbick et al, AJVR, September 2023, addresses the benefits and challenges associated with developing veterinary antibiograms.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Antibiograms are important tools for antimicrobial stewardship that are often underutilized in veterinary medicine. Antibiograms summarize cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) data for specific pathogens over a defined time period; in veterinary medicine, they are often stratified by host species and site of infection. They can aid practitioners with empiric therapy choices and assessment of antimicrobial resistance trends within a population in support of one-health goals for antimicrobial stewardship. For optimal application, consideration must be given to the number of isolates used, the timeframe of sample collection, laboratory analytical methodology, and the patient population contributing to the data (eg, treatment history, geographic region, and production type). There are several limitations to veterinary antibiograms, including a lack of breakpoint availability for bacterial species, a lack of standardization of laboratory methodology and technology for culture and AST, and a lack of funding to staff veterinary diagnostic laboratories at a level that supports antibiogram development and education. It is vital that veterinarians who use antibiograms understand how to apply them in practice and receive relevant information pertaining to the data to utilize the most appropriate antibiogram for their patients. This paper explores the benefits and challenges of developing and using veterinary antibiograms and proposes strategies to enhance their applicability and accuracy. Further detail regarding the application of veterinary antibiograms by privately practicing clinicians is addressed in the companion Currents in One Health article by Lorenz et al (JAVMA, September 2023).

Open access

Abstract

Supply chain issues disrupt veterinary care and cause downstream consequences that alter the practice of veterinary medicine. Antimicrobials are just 1 class of pharmaceuticals that have been impacted by supply chain issues over the last couple of years. Since February 2021, 2 sponsors/manufacturers of penicillin products have reported shortages in the active pharmaceutical ingredient. With the release of the 2021 Summary Report on Antimicrobials Sold or Distributed for Use in Food-Producing Animals by the FDA, a key finding was a 19% decrease in penicillin sales and distribution from 2020 to 2021. Herein, we provide our clinicians’ professional perspective regarding how drug shortages, specifically that of penicillin, might contribute to misconstrued patterns in antimicrobial use and what can be done by veterinarians and the FDA to minimize the impact of an antimicrobial drug shortage on animal health and well-being.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association