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To determine whether hemodynamic responses of halothane-anesthetized horses undergoing surgical procedures depended on anesthetic induction protocols used, and to determine whether hemodynamic responses to surgical manipulation could be detected.


Prospective experimental study without controls.


36 clinically normal horses.


Horses were allotted to 5 groups according to anesthetic induction protocol: acepromazine/guaifene-sin/thiamylal, acepromazine/guaifenesin/ketamine, xyla-zine/guaifenesin/thiamylal, xylazine/guaifenesin/ketamine, and xylazine/diazepam/ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane. Hemodynamic measurements and blood gas values were obtained prior to the start of surgery, during surgery, and after surgery.


Few differences in hemodynamic measurements existed between horses in which anesthesia was induced by 5 anesthetic induction protocols, whether prior to the start of surgery or for pooled values for all 3 measurement periods. Hemodynamic responses to surgical manipulation were marked and included increased mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance, and decreased cardiac index and oxygen delivery.

Clinical Implications—

Choice of anesthetic induction protocol has little impact on hemodynamic function during surgery in halothane-anesthetized horses. Surgical stimulation may increase blood pressure, but does not improve cardiac index or oxygen delivery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:252-257)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Pharmacokinetic variables of etomidate were determined after iv administration of etomidate (3.0 mg/kg of body weight). Blood samples were collected for 6 hours. Disposition of this carboxylated imidazole best conformed to a 2- (n = 2) and a 3- compartment (n = 4) open pharmacokinetic model. The pharmacokinetic values were calculated for the overall best-fitted model, characterized as a mixed 2- and 3-compartmental model. The first and most rapid distribution half-life was 0.05 hour and a second distribution half-life was 0.35 hour. Elimination half-life was 2.89 hours, apparent volume of distribution was 11.87 ± 4.64 L/kg, apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 4.88 ± 2.25 L/kg, apparent volume of the central compartment was 1.17 ± 0.70 L/kg, and total clearance was 2.47 ± 0.78 L/kg/h.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research