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  • Author or Editor: E. M. Kohler x
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The effect of sulfate in drinking water at concentrations of 600, 1,200, and 1,800 mg/L on nursery pig performance and health was evaluated over 28 days on 415 weaned pigs. Sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate were evaluated in combination at concentrations of 600, 1,200, and 1,800 mg/L, and independently at concentrations of 600 and 1,800 mg/L in the drinking water. Seven treatment groups and 1 control group were evaluated for mean gain, feed consumption, water consumption, feed conversion, prevalence of diarrhea, and evidence of common postweaning enteric pathogens. Statistical analysis was performed, using analysis of variance with repeated measures including initial pig weight as a covariate. Prevalence of diarrhea was analyzed nonparametrically with a repeated measures design.

Results indicated that pigs drinking 600, 1,200, or 1,800 mg of sulfate/L water had increased prevalence of nonpathogenic diarrhea during the trial period. There was a trend for increased water consumption corresponding to increased sulfate in the water. Differences in mean daily gain, feed consumption, or feed-to-gain ratios were not observed.

Forty-five pigs were treated at least once during the trial and 4 pigs died, resulting in a nursery morbidity of 11% and mortality of 0.96%. Fourteen isolates of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were found and rotavirus was isolated from 1 pig. Pigs in this study were not exposed to transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

Except for an increase in fecal moisture content (not associated with pathogenic diarrhea), concentrations of up to 1,800 mg of sodium, magnesium, or a combination of sodium and magnesium sulfate/L had no adverse effect on nursery pig performance.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine the presentation, diagnosis, progression, and family risk of fibrotic myopathy, a disease with marked breed predisposition in the German Shepherd Dog (GSD).


41 dogs prospectively recruited to the University of Wisconsin-Madison Comparative Genetics and Orthopedic Laboratory between November 2019 to August 2022.


Medical records of dogs diagnosed with fibrotic myopathy were reviewed upon referral. The following data were recorded: sex, age, weight, regio interscapularis (withers) height, date of neutering, coat color and length, and age at fibrotic myopathy diagnosis. A pedigree was also obtained.


In the study population, breeds included 37 GSDs, a Belgian Malinois, a Belgian Malinois cross, and 2 dogs with a GSD phenotype and no pedigree. Mean age at fibrotic myopathy diagnosis was 5.9 ± 2.0 years, and duration of lameness before diagnosis was 5.6 months and ranged from 0.75 to 18 months. Males were overrepresented at 61% of the study population. Inherited familial risk for fibrotic myopathy in the GSD was supported by pedigree analysis.


This was the largest case series of fibrotic myopathy to date, providing a more comprehensive look at presentation and progression of the disease. The longer duration of lameness in bilaterally affected dogs likely represents disease progression rather than a more severe phenotype. Family history data support a genetic contribution to fibrotic myopathy, suggesting that further genetic investigation is warranted.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association