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SUMMARY

Serum retinol, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A concentrations, and jejunoileal morphology were examined in neonatal calves infected with Cryptosporidium parvum. Group-1 calves served as noninfected controls and, after an adjustment period, were given 50 ml of saline solution iv every 12 hours for 6 days. Group-2 calves were inoculated with 107 C parvum oocysts and, after the onset of diarrhea, were given 50 ml of saline solution iv every 12 hours for 6 days. Group-3 calves were inoculated with 107 C parvum oocysts and, after the onset of diarrhea, were treated with difluoromethylornithine (dfmo, 200 mg/kg of body weight iv, q 12 h) for 6 days. Group-4 calves were naturally infected with C parvum. Jejunoileal biopsy specimens were excised from calves of groups 1-3 at 3 and again at 15 to 16 days of age. During the course of diarrhea and 3 days after saline or dfmo administration, water-miscible retinyl palmitate was administered orally (2,750 μg/kg) to each calf in each group. Cryptosporidium parvum infection was associated with significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in postadministration serum retinol, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A concentrations in calves of groups 2, 3, and 4. Cryptosporidium parvum infection caused significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in villus height. Decreased villus height, villus blunting and fusion, and attenuation of the intestinal mucosa were associated with reduced absorption of vitamin A, as indicated by lower peak postadministration retinyl palmitate concentration in C parvum-infected calves. Intravenous administration of dfmo to group-3 calves did not improve retinol absorption. Vitamin A should be provided parenterally to young calves with enteric cryptosporidiosis in an attempt to avoid depletion of concurrent low liver vitamin A reserves.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To generate reference intervals for ECG variables in clinically normal chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

ANIMALS 100 clinically normal (51 young [< 10 years old] and 49 adult [≥ 10 years old]) wild-born chimpanzees.

PROCEDURES Electrocardiograms collected between 2009 and 2013 at the Tchimpounga Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Centre were assessed to determine heart rate, PR interval, QRS duration, QT interval, QRS axis, P axis, and T axis. Electrocardiographic characteristics for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and morphology of the ST segment, T wave, and QRS complex were identified. Reference intervals for young and old animals were calculated as mean ± 1.96•SD for normally distributed data and as 5th to 95th percentiles for data not normally distributed. Differences between age groups were assessed by use of unpaired Student t tests.

RESULTS Reference intervals were generated for young and adult wild-born chimpanzees. Most animals had sinus rhythm with small or normal P wave morphology; 24 of 51 (47%) young chimpanzees and 30 of 49 (61%) adult chimpanzees had evidence of LVH as determined on the basis of criteria for humans.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cardiac disease has been implicated as the major cause of death in captive chimpanzees. Species-specific ECG reference intervals for chimpanzees may aid in the diagnosis and treatment of animals with, or at risk of developing, heart disease. Chimpanzees with ECG characteristics outside of these intervals should be considered for follow-up assessment and regular cardiac monitoring.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine the prevalence of antibody to bovine adenovirus (BAdV) serotypes 1-8 and 10 in calves at a farm and after 5 weeks in a feedyard.

Animals

2- to 5-month-old calves of mixed English breeding (n = 100) from 4 farms.

Procedure

Serum BAdV antibody was measured by use of a microtitration test.

Results

Serum antibodies were found to the 9 BAdV serotypes studied. Seroconversion to each virus had occurred in some calves by the time the second serum sample had been obtained, indicating that the BAdV were present and inducing active infection in these calves.

Conclusions

Antibody to BAdV serotypes 1-8 and 10 are present in cattle populations of the United States, indicating existence of these serotypes, although only BAdV serotypes 1-4, 7, and 10 have been isolated. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1579-1580)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the humoral response of horses to vaccination, using a murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (A4) that shares an epitope with lipid A.

Design

Serum concentrations of antilipid A antibody and 1C9 (epitope on murine monoclonal antihpid A antibody) were measured serially during the period of vaccination with A4.

Animals

6 clinically normal adult ponies.

Procedure

Ponies were inoculated IM 3 times at monthly intervals with A4. Two weeks after each inoculation, serum was obtained and was assayed by ELISA for antilipid A and 1C9 concentrations. Additional vaccinations were given to 2 of the ponies after a several-month rest period.

Results

There was significant increase in 1C9 concentration (P<0.0001) during the period of vaccination and a trend toward increased antilipid A concentration. The latter effect was not significant (P= 0.055). Additional vaccinations produced further increase in serum 1C9 concentration; antihpid A concentration increased in one of these ponies but not the other. Maximal antihpid A concentration recorded in these ponies was approximately 6 times preimmune concentration and was comparable to that found in a commercial antiendotoxin antiserum. 1C9 also was detected in the commercial antiserum.

Conclusions

A4 anti-idiotype vaccination of horses is safe and may be effective in eliciting an antibody response against endotoxin. The finding of 1C9 in a commercial antiendotoxin antiserum indicates that this idiotype may be part of the normal polyclonal antibody response of horses to endotoxin.

Clinical Relevance

It may be possible to use anti-idiotypic antibody vaccination in horses to induce protection against the effects of endotoxin. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:655–658)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Enrofloxacin was administered orally to 6 healthy dogs at dosages of approximately 2.75, 5.5, and 11 mg/kg of body weight, every 12 hours for 4 days, with a 4-week interval between dosage regimens. Serum and tissue cage fluid (tcf) concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured after the first and seventh treatments. The mean peak serum concentration occurred between 1 and 2.5 hours after dosing. Peak serum concentrations increased with increases in dosage. For each dosage regimen, there was an accumulation of enrofloxacin between the first and seventh treatment, as demonstrated by a significant (P = 0.001) increase in peak serum concentrations. The serum elimination half-life increased from 3.39 hours for the 2.75 mg/kg dosage to 4.94 hours for the 11 mg/kg dosage. Enrofloxacin accumulated slowly into tcf, with peak concentrations being approximately 58% of those of serum. The time of peak tcf concentrations occurred between 3.8 hours and 5.9 hours after drug administration, depending on the dosage and whether it was after single or multiple administrations. Compared with serum concentrations (area under the curve tcf /area under the curveserum), the percentage of enrofloxacin penetration into tcf was 85% at a dosage of 2.75 mg/kg, 83% at a dosage of 5.5 mg/kg, and 88% at a dosage of 11 mg/kg. All 3 dosage regimens of enrofloxacin induced continuous serum and tcf concentrations greater than the minimal concentration required to inhibit 90% (mic 90) of the aerobic and facultative anaerobic clinical isolates tested, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only the 11 mg/kg dosage regimen provided continuous serum and tcf concentrations that exceeded the mic 90 for P aeruginosa isolates; whereas none of the dosages induced serum or tcf concentrations greater than the mic 90 of the obligate anaerobic bacteria tested.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasturella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of α interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep.

On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. The bighorn sheep was vaccinated with a modified-live Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine and allowed to habituate to its new facilities for 133 days before it was exposed to the carrier sheep.

Body temperature of this bighorn sheep was monitored every hour with radiotelemetry. Pneumonia was diagnosed on day 30 of exposure to the carrier sheep. Treatment consisting of long-acting oxytetracycline, sulfadimethoxine, long-acting sulfamethazine bolus, dexamethasone, and flunixin meglumine was given for 8 days and clinical improvement was detected. Acute pneumonia was again diagnosed on day 53. The bighorn sheep was removed from contact with the carrier sheep and put in isolation for a second treatment regimen. The bighorn sheep died on day 99. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from a tracheal flush and a nasal specimen obtained during the second bout of pneumonia and from lung tissue and sinuses at necropsy. Viruses were not isolated from the tracheal flush or from tissue samples collected at necropsy.

None of the carrier sheep had clinical signs of pneumonia during the trials. Bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing in the bighorn sheep and ewes prior to and during the study suggested that carrier ewes were the source of P multocida infection in the bighorn sheep. Viruses were not a predisposing factor. Chronic sinusitis following initial pneumonia was suspected to play a role in the recurrence of pneumonia in the bighorn sheep of trial 5.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Nine cns bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1) isolates, recovered from bovine brain samples submitted to the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratories from 1974-1989, were compared by analyzing their dna restriction endonuclease (re) fragment migration pattern. Seven had pattern similar to that of the respiratory bhv-1 Cooper strain. The remaining 2 isolates, however, had variant patterns, similar to that of each other, but completely different from patterns for the other 7. The re patterns of these 2 variants were similar to published re patterns for 2 encephalitic or neuropathogenic bhv-1 strains — the Australian N-569 strain and the Argentine A-663 strain. One of the Texas encephalitic variants (No. 30326) was isolated from the cns of a calf that died during an epizootic of encephalitis in 1974. The other, designated TX-89, was isolated in 1989 from the cns of a 7-month-old feedlot steer with acute fatal encephalitis. Microscopic lesions of encephalitis with neuronal degeneration and intranuclear inclusions were observed for 3 of the 9 isolates, the 2 variant isolates (No. 30326 and TX-89), and a respiratory isolate. The remaining 6 cns isolates, all respiratory subtypes, were recovered from cattle that did not have clinical cns disease or gross or microscopic cns lesions; in 5 of these cattle, virus was recovered from at least 1 other organ (lungs) besides the cns. We conclude that the cns of calves can be naturally infected with 2 distinct bhv-1 subtypes, the respiratory and the encephalitic, and that the encephalitic subtype (subtype 3 or bhv-1.3) has been present in Texas cattle since at least 1974.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The abomasa of 1,949 slaughtered feedlot cattle, 45 necropsied feedlot cattle that died 2 to 45 days after arrival, and 45 necropsied pastured cattle were opened and examined. Of these organs, 484,1, and none, respectively, contained erosions. The slaughtered cattle were fattened at 3 locations: 1,305 with 430 eroded abomasa were fed a ration of corn in northeastern Colorado; 144 cattle with 4 affected abomasa fed a ration of milo in south-central Arizona; and 500 cattle with 50 affected abomasa fed a ration of milo and corn in northwestern Texas. The red-brown lesions developed late during the second semester of fattening and were located mostly on fundic folds. Those on fold edges were linear and were 2 to 15 cm long, whereas those on fold sides were punctate and were 2 to 15 mm in diameter. Normal fold edges contained fewer goblet cells and less surface mucus than did fold sides. Eroded folds had disruption of surface epithelium, damage to endothelial cells, and dilated, thrombosed, congested, and ruptured capillaries. Mean pH values of 16 normal and 17 eroded abomasa were 4.7 and 3.9, respectively. Necrosis of all tissue toward the mucosal surface of erosions was extensive. The cause of gastric erosion in cattle is not known.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine microradiographic appearance, bone histomorphometry, and mineral density of the long bones of the metacarpophalangeal joint in horses after immobilization followed by remobilization.

Animals—5 healthy horses.

Procedure—One forelimb of each horse was immobilized in a fiberglass cast for 7 weeks, followed by 8 weeks of increasing exercise. Calcein and oxytetracycline were administered IV during the immobilization and exercise phases, respectively, for bone labeling and analysis after euthanasia. Sagittal sections of metacarpal bones and proximal phalanges were examined via radiography, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, histomorphometry, and bone label analysis.

Results—Radiography revealed loss of bone mineral opacity in the subarticular regions of the immobilized metacarpal bones and phalanges and subchondral lesions in metacarpal bones in 2 horses. In phalanges, a significant decrease in subarticular volumetric bone mineral density was detected. There was significantly less bone volume and calcein-labeled bone surface and more vascular volume and oxytetracycline-labeled bone surface in immobilized phalanges, compared with contralateral phalanges.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Eight weeks of exercise after single-limb immobilization is insufficient for recovery of volumetric bone mineral density. During immobilization and remobilization, the subchondral and trabecular bone appear to be actively remodeling. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:276–281)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A simple cryogenic technique for preserving bovine buffy coat leukocytes was developed. This was coupled with a variation of the standard discontinuous gradient technique to purify mononuclear cells that retained immunologic function. The total number of mononuclear cells recovered from cyropreserved samples were only 87 to 42% of those recovered from freshly obtained blood samples. However, the functional capabilities of mononuclear cells from cyopreserved buffy coat preparations were retained. Polyclonal proliferative responses to 3 mitogens were measured, using a titration of mitogen concentrations, and were found to be normal, compared with those of cells isolated from fresh blood. Blood samples collected after vaccination with Brucella abortus contained leukocytes that responded to irradiated B abortus. These antigen-specific responses were also retained through cyopreservation. Cell surface expression of T-lymphocyte antigens, CD2, CD4, and CD8, and cell-surface IgM on B lymphocytes was also evaluated. Flow cytometric analysis of fresh and cryopreserved mononuclear cell preparations indicated that the relative proportions of different subpopulations were not altered. The technical simplicity of our cryopreservation system will allow processing of large numbers of samples with the ability to assay various immune functions at a later time.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research