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Summary

Efficacy of fenbendazole at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs was assessed. Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-1 dogs (as determined by use of the zinc sulfate concentration technique) after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/kg of body weight, po, q 24 h, for 3 doses). Cysts were not detected in the feces of 6 of 6 group-2 dogs after fenbendazole treatment (50 mg/ kg of body weight, po, q 8 h, for 3 days). However, cysts were not detected in the feces of only 1 of 6 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that the current label dosage (for the treatment of Toxocara canis, Toxascarisleonina, Ancylostoma canmum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, and Taenia pisiformis, but not Giardia spp) of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, po, q 24 h, for 3 doses) is also effective for treating giardiasis in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

We examined the efficacy of ivermectin in the control of ear mites (Psoroptes cuniculi) in rabbits. The study involved 40 female and 35 male rabbits that were known to be naturally infested with ear mites. After a period of acclimation to the animal care facilities, the rabbits were ranked on the visual appearance of any ear lesion and the number of mites on glycerin-dipped ear swabs. The rabbits were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups; vehicle only (group 1), 50 µg of ivermectin/kg of body weight (group 2), 100 µg of ivermectin/kg (group 3) and 200 µg of ivermectin/kg (group 4). The rabbits were treated by SC injections on day 0 and day 14 of the trial; thus, the total dose of ivermectin given to groups 1 through 4, was 0, 100, 200, or 400 µg/kg, respectively. The study ended 2 weeks after the last treatment. Ear lesions of the treated rabbits improved significantly (P<0.001). By 28 days after the first treatment, the mean number of mites on the ear swabs (both ears) was 57.5 for untreated rabbits and 9.1, 0.5, and 2.5, respectively, for rabbits in groups 2, 3, and 4. The mean number of mites recovered from the ears of the untreated rabbits at necropsy was 24,297. For groups 2, 3, and 4, the mean number of mites recovered from the ears was 5,352, 96, and 96, respectively. The efficacy of treatment with a total dose of 100 µg/kg was 77.96%, with 200 µg/kg was 99.61%, and for 400 µg/ kg was 99.61%.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Previous work indicated that adult Ancylostoma caninum can be removed from experimentally infected dogs, using a formulation of milbemycin oxime at dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight. To determine the efficacy of this treatment in dogs naturally infected with adult hookworms, 24 mixed-breed dogs with patent hookworm infections were purchased from an out-of-state vendor, and 6 male and 6 female dogs were assigned to either a control group or a group that would be treated. Dogs were treated 10 days after their arrival and were euthanatized 1 week after treatment. Beginning 3 days before treatment, fecal samples were collected daily from all dogs, and the number of Ancylostoma eggs per gram of dry weight of feces was determined from each sample. By 1 week after treatment, the mean number of eggs being passed by the treated dogs had dropped from 12,700 to 10 eggs/g of dried feces; there was no apparent change in fecal egg counts for dogs of the control group. At necropsy, the mean number of adult A caninum in dogs of the treated and control groups was 1.3 and 56, respectively; in these naturally infected dogs, efficacy of treatment was calculated to be 97.8%. The mean number of adult Trichuris vulpis recovered in dogs of the control and treated groups at necropsy was 24 and 0, respectively, which yielded treatment efficacy of 100%. Although Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis appeared also to be removed by use of this dosage, too few dogs were in the study to calculate meaningful efficacies. The milbemycin oxime formulation appeared to have no effect on the cestodes (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum) and spirurids (Physaloptera rara) that were present in some dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the apparent prevalence of shedding of Cryptosporidium spp in healthy alpaca crias and their dams on 14 farms in New York and 1 farm in Pennsylvania.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—110 alpaca crias and their 110 dams.

Procedures—Fecal samples were obtained from 220 alpacas at 14 alpaca farms in New York and 1 farm in Pennsylvania. For each animal, age, sex, and health condition were recorded. A fecal score (1 = normally formed; 2 = soft or loose; 3 = diarrhetic) was recorded for each cria. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in fecal samples by a direct immunofluorescence assay.

Results—Apparent prevalence of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 8% (95% confidence interval, 4% to 15%) in dams and was 7% (95% confidence interval, 3% to 13%) in crias. There was no significant difference in age between dams with positive fecal test results for Cryptosporidium oocysts (median age, 4 years; range, 3 to 8 years) and dams with negative results (median age, 4 years; range, 2.5 to 19 years). No significant difference was found in age between crias with positive fecal test results (median age, 20 days; range, 7 to 53 days) and those with negative results (median, 36 days; range, 2 to 111 days). No significant difference in fecal scores was found between crias with positive versus negative fecal test results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A higher than previously reported apparent prevalence of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in healthy alpacas was found. A zoonotic risk should be considered, especially for Cryptosporidium parvum.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of a combination of praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel at 2 dosages for treating naturally acquired giardiasis in dogs.

Animals

6 male and 9 female Beagles.

Procedure

Dogs were identified as naturally infected with Giardia sp, using the zinc sulfate concentration technique (ZSCT), and were allocated to 1 of 3 groups. Group-1 dogs were treated orally with a praziquantel (5.4 to 7 mg/kg of body weight), pyrantel pamoate (26.8 to 35.2 mg/kg), and febantel (26.8 to 35.2 mg/kg) combination, every 24 hours for 3 doses. Group-2 dogs were treated with the combination once. Group-3 dogs were nontreated controls. Four fecal samples were examined, using the ZSCT, from each dog of each group within 6 days of the last treatment. Dogs were considered to have giardiasis if 1 or more of the fecal samples had positive results for Giardia cysts. Dogs were examined daily for at least 10 days after the last treatment.

Results

Giardia cysts were not detected in the feces of any group-1 dog or in the feces of 2 of 5 group- 2 dogs. Cysts were detected in the feces of 5 of 5 group-3 (nontreated control) dogs. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

The current labeled dose (for treatment of various nematodes and cestodes, but not Giardia sp) of the combination given orally once reduces cyst excretion in Giardia-infected dogs, and should be considered for treatment of dogs shedding Giardia cysts, whether or not they have clinical signs of infection. (Am J Vet Res 1998; 59:1134-1136)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Efficacy of albendazole for treating giardiasis in dogs was assessed in 3 experiments. In experiment 1, Giardia cysts were cleared from feces of 5 of 7 dogs (as determined by the zinc-sulfate concentration technique) after the dogs received a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg of body weight, po), whereas feces of 3 of 7 dogs became clear of cysts without treatment. In experiment 2, feces of 5 of 5 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole treatment (25 mg/kg, po, q 12 h for 4 doses); feces of 1 of 5 untreated control dogs became clear. In experiment 3, feces of 18 of 20 dogs became clear of cysts after albendazole (25 mg/kg, po, q 12 h for 4 doses) was given; none of the 20 control dogs had feces clear of cysts. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in any dog. These results indicate that a single dose of albendazole (25 mg/kg, po) is not effective for treating giardiasis in dogs. However, 4 doses of albendazole (25 mg/kg, po, q 12 h) are highly effective and nontoxic for treatment of giardiasis in dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Two commercially available tests, an antigen-capture elisa for use on fecal samples, and a peroral nylon string test for use in dogs, were compared with a zinc sulfate fecal concentration technique (zsct) for detection of giardiasis in dogs. Of 77 dogs and 164 fecal samples (from these dogs), 33 and 52, respectively were found to be Giardia-positive on the basis of results of the zsct. The elisa gave false-negative results for 10 and 14% of zsct-positive dogs and fecal samples, respectively, and false-positive results (relative to the zsct test results) in 13 and 10% of zsct-positive dogs and fecal samples, respectively.

Of the 18 string-tested dogs, 14 were positive by results of the zsct. Of the 4 dogs that were Giardia-negative by zsct, 2 were Giardia-positive by elisa. Dogs were sedated and given water and metoclopramide to aid passage into the duodenum of the capsule containing a nylon string. Of the 21 string tests performed on the 18 dogs, only 5 strings reached the duodenum, and 0 of the 5 yielded positive results for Giardia sp. Because the string broke in 1 dog (leaving most in the gastrointestinal tract and, therefore, producing a risk of string foreign body) further string tests were not done.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Previous work had indicated that the 2 canine hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, may differ in their susceptibility to treatment with milbemycin oxime. Thus, the study reported here was to examine the effects of this drug on concomitant infections in experimentally infected dogs. Twenty specific-pathogen-free Beagles were inoculated orally with 500 infective-stage larvae from a mixture of larval A caninum and U stenocephala. Quantitative fecal examinations were performed weekly, beginning the day of infection. The dogs were assigned to 2 equal groups, 1 group that received the compound and 1 that received a placebo. The dogs were treated on postinoculation days 30, 60, and 90. For A caninum, egg counts dropped precipitously after the first treatment, and no eggs of this species were found in the feces of any of the treated dogs after the second treatment. The treatments had no significant effect on the mean egg counts made on U stenocephala, although 2 dogs stopped passing eggs entirely after the second treatment. At necropsy, no A caninum were found in any of the treated dogs; the mean number recovered from the control-group dogs was 56.1. Significant difference was not found in the mean number of adult U stenocephala recovered from the treated and control groups (27.0 and 21.7, respectively).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 12-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat with chronic anterior uveitis and secondary glaucoma of the right eye was examined for persistent blepharospasm 2 weeks after corneal debridement and grid keratotomy for nonhealing superficial ulcerative keratitis.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Examination of the right eye revealed a central superficial corneal ulcer associated with corneal epithelial and subepithelial infiltrates and mild aqueous flare. Structures consistent with amoeboid cysts and trophozoites were detected in the cornea by in vivo confocal microscopy. Suppurative keratitis was identified cytologically. An Acanthamoeba spp was isolated through culture and identified by a PCR assay of corneal specimens.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Symptomatic and antiamoebic (polyhexamethylene biguanide 0.02% ophthalmic solution) treatments were instituted. Over the following 6 weeks, the cat lost vision in the affected eye and lesions progressed to nonulcerative stromal keratitis associated with a dense paracentral corneal stroma ring infiltrate and anterior lens luxation. The globe was enucleated, and lymphoplasmacytic sclerokeratitis, anterior uveitis, and retinal detachment were noted. Acanthamoeba organisms were detected within the corneal stroma and anterior sclera with histologic and immunohistochemical stains. The amoebae were classified to the Acanthamoeba T4 genotype by DNA sequencing. The cat had no medical problems attributed to Acanthamoeba infection over 36 months after enucleation, until the cat was lost to follow-up.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Naturally acquired Acanthamoeba sclerokeratitis is described in a cat for the first time. Acanthamoeba infection should be considered for cats with superficial corneal disease refractory to appropriate treatments and especially occurring after ocular trauma, including keratotomy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old Hanoverian gelding was evaluated because of a mobile worm-like structure in the right eye.

Clinical Findings—Ophthalmologic examination of the right eye revealed a white, thin, coiled, mobile parasite, which was presumed to be a nematode, located in the ventral portion of the anterior chamber of the eye; there also were vitreal strands located temporally and inferiorly near the margin of the pupil. Results of ophthalmologic examination of the left eye were unremarkable.

Treatment and Outcome—The horse was treated with a neomycin-polymyxin B-dexamethasone ophthalmic solution applied topically (1 drop, q 8 h) to the right eye and penicillin V potassium (22,000 U/kg [10,000 U/lb], IV, q 6 h). The horse was anesthetized. A stab incision was made in the cornea, and a viscoelastic agent was infused around the parasite. The parasite was extracted via the incision by use of an iris hook and tying forceps. The horse had an uncomplicated recovery from the procedure and retained vision in the right eye. Gross and microscopic examination was used to identify the parasite as an adult metastrongyloid nematode consistent with a fully developed male Parelaphostrongylus tenuis.

Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of intraocular parelaphostrongylosis in a horse. This report provided evidence that vision could be retained after treatment for intraocular P tenuis infection in a horse.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association