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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of recovery from general anesthesia in horses after induction with propofol and ketamine versus midazolam and ketamine.

DESIGN Prospective randomized crossover study.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Horses were premedicated with xylazine (1.0 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], IV), and general anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IV) or propofol (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], IV), followed by ketamine (3.0 mg/kg [1.36 mg/lb], IV). Horses were endotracheally intubated, and anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. After 60 minutes, horses were given romifidine (0.02 mg/kg [0.009 mg/lb], IV) and allowed to recover unassisted. Times to first movement, sternal recumbency, and standing and the number of attempts to stand were recorded. Plasma concentrations of propofol or midazolam were measured following induction and immediately before recovery. Recovery quality was scored by 3 graders with a recovery rubric and a visual analog scale.

RESULTS Number of attempts to stand was significantly lower when horses received propofol (median, 2; range, 1 to 3) than when they received midazolam (median, 7.5; range, 3 to 16). For both the recovery rubric and visual analog scale, recovery quality was significantly better when horses received propofol than when they received midazolam. Plasma drug concentration at recovery, as a percentage of the concentration at induction, was significantly lower when horses received propofol than when they received midazolam.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that for horses undergoing short (ie, 60 minutes) periods of general anesthesia, recovery quality may be better following induction with propofol and ketamine, compared with midazolam and ketamine.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine accuracy and precision of a point-of-care hemoglobinometer for measuring hemoglobin concentration and estimating PCV in horses.

Design—Prospective trial.

Animals—55 horses.

Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from 43 horses examined at a veterinary teaching hospital. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with the hemoglobinometer and by means of the standard cyanmethemoglobin method; PCV was measured by centrifugation. Blood samples were also obtained from 12 healthy horses, and PCV of aliquots of these samples was altered to approximately 5 to 80% by removing or adding plasma. Hemoglobin concentration and PCV were then measured.

Results—For samples from the clinic patients, hemoglobin concentrations obtained with the hemoglobinometer were less than concentrations obtained with the cyanmethemoglobin method; however, there was a linear relationship between concentrations obtained with the 2 methods. Breed, sex, body weight, and duration of sample storage did not significantly affect the difference between hemoglobin concentrations obtained with the 2 methods. There was a significant linear relationship between PCV and hemoglobinometer hemoglobin concentration (PCV = [2.83 X hemoglobin concentration] − 0.62). For samples from the healthy horses, a substantial negative bias was evident with the hemoglobinometer when hemoglobin concentration exceeded 16 g/dL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that this hemoglobinometer is reasonably accurate and precise when used to measure hemoglobin concentration in blood samples from horses with a hemoglobin concentration < 16 g/dL. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:78–83)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association