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  • Author or Editor: Douglass K. Macintire x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify subclinical Babesia gibsoni infection in American Pit Bull Terriers from the southeastern United States and to determine the genetic sequence of parasite DNA isolated from these dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—33 American Pit Bull Terriers and 87 dogs of various other breeds.

Procedure—Blood smears were examined for microscopic evidence of the parasite, and DNA was extracted from blood samples and used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay designed to amplify the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of B gibsoni. Amplification products of the expected size were sequenced, and sequences were compared with published sequences for B gibsoni isolates. Hematocrit, platelet count, mean platelet volume, WBC count, and eosinophil count were compared between dogs with positive PCR assay results and dogs with negative results.

Results—Results of the PCR assay were positive for 18 of the 33 (55%) American Pit Bull Terriers, including all 10 dogs with microscopic evidence of parasitemia. Only 1 of these dogs was clinically ill at the time blood samples were collected. Results of microscopic evaluation of blood smears and of the PCR assay were negative for the 87 other dogs. Hematocrit and platelet count were significantly lower in dogs with positive PCR assay results than in dogs with negative results.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that American Pit Bull Terriers in the southeastern United States may be subclinically infected with B gibsoni. However, subclinical infection was not identified in dogs of other breeds from the same geographic area. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220: 325–329)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and pathologic findings before and after short-term (group 1) and longterm (group 2) treatment in dogs with Hepatozoon americanuminfection.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—53 dogs with H americanuminfection.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs that were treated for hepatozoonosis diagnosed on the basis of meront or merozoite stages in skeletal muscle were reviewed.

Results—Circulating gametocytes of H americanum were identified in 12 of 53 dogs. Dogs were treated with various drugs, including toltrazuril, trimethoprimsulfadiazine, clindamycin, pyrimethamine, and decoquinate. Mean WBC counts prior to treatment were 85,700 and 75,200 cells/µl in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and 1 month after initiation of treatment were 12,600 and 14,600 cells/µl, respectively. Initial response to treatment was excellent in all dogs. Twenty-three of 26 dogs in group 1 relapsed at least once and died within 2 years; mean (± SD) survival time was 12.6 ± 2.2 months. Twenty-two of 27 group-2 dogs survived; 11 dogs had no clinical signs and were still receiving decoquinate (mean duration of treatment, 21 months), 11 dogs had no clinical signs after treatment for 14 months (range, 3 to 33 months; mean survival time, 39 months [range, 26 to 53 months]), 2 dogs were lost to follow-up, and 3 dogs were euthanatized because of severe disease.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although no treatment effectively eliminated the tissue stages of H americanum, treatment with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine followed by long-term administration of decoquinate resulted in extended survival times and excellent quality of life. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:77–82)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize rib, intrathoracic, and concurrent orthopedic injuries, and prognosis associated with traumatic rib fracture in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—75 cats.

Procedure—Medical records from January 1980 to August 1998 were examined for cats with traumatic rib fracture. Signalment, cause of trauma, interval from trauma to evaluation at a veterinary teaching hospital, referral status and date, method of diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, number and location of rib fractures, presence of flail chest, costal cartilage involvement, intrathoracic and concurrent orthopedic injury, and clinical outcome were reviewed.

Results—Median age was 3 years. Twenty-five (58%) cats with reported cause of trauma were injured by interaction with another animal. Fortyseven (78%) cats that were treated survived. Cats that died had a median duration of hospitalization of < 1 day. Ten (13%) cats had flail chest. Sixty-five (87%) cats had intrathoracic injury (median, 2 injuries). Nine (100%) cats without detected intrathoracic injury that were treated survived. Thirty-five (47%) cats had concurrent orthopedic injury. Cats with flail chest, pleural effusion, or diaphragmatic hernia were significantly more likely to die than cats without each injury.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Traumatic rib fracture in cats is associated with intrathoracic and concurrent orthopedic injury. Aggressive treatment of cats with traumatic rib fracture is warranted, because the prognosis is generally favorable. Diagnosis and treatment of intrathoracic injury associated with traumatic rib fracture in cats should precede management of concurrent orthopedic injury. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:51–54)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association