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  • Author or Editor: Douglas W. Jones x
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Ten clinically affected Shetland Sheepdogs were evaluated to define their severe bleeding diathesis and were determined to have von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag) values < 0.1% by elisa assay. The virtual absence of vWF protein by elisa assay and on multimeric analysis was diagnostic of either homozygosity or probable double heterozygosity for the canine von Willebrand disease (vWD) gene. Clinically affected dogs have type-III vWD and are the offspring of 2 heterozygous parents carrying type-I vWD. Twenty-three percent (1,428 dogs) of the more than 6,000 Shetland Sheepdogs screened for vWD at our facility since 1982 tested within the heterozygous carrier range for the common type-I form of this inherited disorder. Veterinarians and breeders should be aware of the potential for bleeding associated with elective and medical procedures in Shetland Sheepdogs and should use caution when breeding carriers of vWD because of the risk of producing clinically affected offspring with severe type-III vWD.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether clinical progression of paratuberculosis in cattle was associated with alterations in cytokine gene expression in affected tissues.


5 uninfected adult Holstein cows, 7 adult Holstein cows naturally infected with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis that did not have clinical signs of disease, and 4 adult Holstein cows naturally infected with M paratuberculosis that had progressive clinical signs of infection.


Samples of ileum and cecal lymph nodes were obtained from each animal at the time of slaughter. A reverse transcriptase-competitive polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine mRNA expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 in each sample.


Interferon-γ gene expression was significantly higher in ileum and cecal lymph node samples from subclinically infected cows than from clinically infected cows.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Progression of paratuberculosis to clinical stages is associated with reduced expression of IFN-γ at site of infection. If immune response to M paratuberculosis can be manipulated so that IFN-γ expression is increased, resistance to infection in cattle might be enhanced. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:842–847)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-week-old 7.7-kg (16.9-lb) sexually intact female Golden Retriever was evaluated because of urine dripping from the caudoventral aspect of the abdomen.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Ultrasonography, radiography, excretory CT urography, and vaginocystourethroscopy were performed. Results indicated eversion of the bladder through the ventral abdominal wall with exposure of the ureterovesicular junctions, pubic diastasis, and an open vulva and clitoral fossa. Clinical findings were suggestive of bladder exstrophy, a rare congenital anomaly.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog was anesthetized and bilateral ileal osteotomies were performed. Two ureteral catheters were passed retrograde into the renal pelves under fluoroscopic guidance. The lateral margins of the bladder, bladder neck, and urethra were surgically separated from the abdominal wall, and the bladder was closed, forming a hollow viscus. The symphysis pubis was closed on midline with horizontal mattress sutures. The defects in the vestibule and clitoral fossa were closed. Lastly, the iliac osteotomies were stabilized. The dog was initially incontinent with right hind limb sciatic neuropraxia and developed pyelonephritis. Over time, the dog became continent with full return to orthopedic and neurologic function, but had recurrent urinary tract infections, developed renal azotemia likely associated with chronic pyelonephritis, and ultimately was euthanized 3.5 years after surgery because of end-stage kidney disease.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Bladder exstrophy and epispadias is a treatable but rare congenital abnormality. The procedure described could be considered for treatment of this condition, but care should be taken to monitor for urinary tract infections and ascending pyelonephritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether administration of 2 doses of a multivalent, modified-live virus vaccine prior to breeding of heifers would provide protection against abortion and fetal infection following exposure of pregnant heifers to cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and cattle with acute bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infection.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—33 crossbred beef heifers, 3 steers, 6 bulls, and 25 calves.

Procedures—20 of 22 vaccinated and 10 of 11 unvaccinated heifers became pregnant and were commingled with 3 steers PI with BVDV type 1a, 1b, or 2 for 56 days beginning 102 days after the second vaccination (administered 30 days after the first vaccination). Eighty days following removal of BVDV-PI steers, heifers were commingled with 3 bulls with acute BHV1 infection for 14 days.

Results—After BVDV exposure, 1 fetus (not evaluated) was aborted by a vaccinated heifer; BVDV was detected in 0 of 19 calves from vaccinated heifers and in all 4 fetuses (aborted after BHV1 exposure) and 6 calves from unvaccinated heifers. Bovine herpesvirus 1 was not detected in any fetus or calf and associated fetal membranes in either treatment group. Vaccinated heifers had longer gestation periods and calves with greater birth weights, weaning weights, average daily gains, and market value at weaning, compared with those for calves born to unvaccinated heifers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prebreeding administration of a modified-live virus vaccine to heifers resulted in fewer abortions and BVDV-PI offspring and improved growth and increased market value of weaned calves.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association