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Objective—To develop a clinically applicable assay for detection of serum anti-neutrophil antibodies in dogs.
Sample Population—Serum samples of 20 healthy dogs and 20 sick dogs.
Procedures—An indirect immunofluorescence assay was developed in which canine serum was incubated with paraformaldehyde-fixed neutrophils and subsequently incubated with fluorescein-conjugated rabbit anti-dog IgG. Neutrophil median fluorescence intensity and the percentage of neutrophils with an increase in fluorescence intensity were determined by use of a flow cytometer.
Results—Neutrophils incubated with serum from healthy and sick dogs had a normally distributed curve when displayed as a histogram. Alloantibodies or immune complexes that significantly affected test results were not detected. Hyperglobulinemia did not appear to affect test results. The neutrophil donor did not significantly affect test results. With 1 exception, results for the sick dogs did not differ appreciably from those for healthy dogs. Serum from a dog with steroid-responsive neutropenia had a greater neutrophil fluorescence value and percentage of neutrophils with an increase in fluorescence intensity, compared with either healthy or sick dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The indirect immunofluorescence test gave consistent results for healthy and sick dogs and detected anti-neutrophil antibodies in a dog with steroid-responsive neutropenia. Definitive evaluation of the test will be dependent on evaluation of persistently neutropenic dogs and correlation of test results with a response to immunosuppressive therapy.
Objective—To evaluate the potential usefulness of 2 flow cytometric methods for determination of differential cell counts in feline bone marrow.
Sample Population—10 bone marrow specimens from client-owned cats.
Procedure—Bone marrow specimens were stained with 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6) and evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Differential counts were also determined by analysis of scatterplots of forward-angle versus side-angle light scatter of unstained specimens, obtained by use of flow cytometry (scatterplot method). Results of both flow cytometric methods were compared with differential cell counts determined by manually counting 1,000 cells on slides of Wright-stained smears.
Results—Staining with DiOC6 resulted in identification of mature and immature erythroid and myeloid cells and lymphocytes. Use of the scatterplot method resulted in identification of mature and immature erythroid and myeloid cells and metamyelocytes. However, to identify lymphocytes by use of the scatterplot method, bone marrow specimens were first labeled with an anti-major histocompatability class-II antibody. Comparison of results of the scatterplot method with manual counts yielded higher correlation coefficients and more similar mean values than did comparison of results of the DiOC6 method.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—The scatterplot method provided more accurate and precise results than the DiOC6 method for determination of bone marrow differential cell counts in cats by use of flow cytometry. When combined with fluorescent labeling of lymphocytes, the scatterplot method has potential to provide rapid semiquantitative assessment of bone marrow differential cell counts in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:474–478)
Objectives—To evaluate use of monoclonal antibodies to increase accuracy of flow cytometric differential cell counting of canine bone marrow cells.
Sample Population—Bone marrow specimens from 15 dogs.
Procedures—Specimens were labeled with monoclonal antibodies that detected CD18, major histocompatability antigen class-II (MHC class-II), CD14, and Thy-1. Location of fluorescent and nonfluorescent cells within gates of a template developed for canine bone marrow differential cell counting was determined, the template was revised, and 10 specimens were analyzed by use of the old and revised templates and by labeling cells with anti-MHC class-II and anti-CD14.
Results—Data confirmed the presumptive location of marrow subpopulations in scatter plots, permitted detection of lymphocytes and monocytemacrophages, and was used to revise the analysis template used for differential cell counting. When differential cells counts determined by the original and revised templates were compared with results of manual differential cell counts, the revised template had higher correlation coefficients and more similar mean values. Labeling cells with anti-MHC class-II and anti-CD14 permitted identification of lymphoid and monocyte-macrophages cells in bone marrow specimens.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of the revised flow cytometric analysis template combined with anti-CD14 and anti-MHC class-II antibody labeling provides reliable differential cell counts for clinical bone marrow specimens in dogs. These techniques have potential applications to clinical bone marrow examination and preclinical toxicity studies. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1273–1278)
Objective—To evaluate monoclonal antibodies that may be useful for immunophenotyping myeloid cells in bone marrow of dogs.
Sample Population—Bone marrow specimens obtained from 5 dogs.
Design—Specimens were labeled with monoclonal antibodies that detected CD18, major histocompatability antigen class-II (MHC class-II), CD14, and Thy-1. Cells labeled with each of the antibodies were isolated by use of a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Differential cell counts of sorted cells were used to determine cells that were labeled by each of the various antibodies.
Results—Myeloid cells labeled with anti-CD18 antibody included granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes- macrophages. Immature and mature granulocytes were labeled. Lymphocytes, monocytesmacrophages, and eosinophils were labeled with anti-Thy-1 antibody. Cells labeled with anti-MHC-class II antibody included approximately 9% of bone marrow cells, which consisted almost exclusively of lymphocytes and monocytes-macrophages. Approximately 4% of bone marrow cells were labeled with anti-CD14 antibody, with > 90% of sorted cells being monocytes-macrophages.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Four monoclonal antibodies for use in detecting subpopulations of canine bone marrow cells were evaluated. These antibodies should be useful in differentiating the origin of leukemic cells in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1229–1233)
Objective—To further classify dysmyelopoiesis as diagnosed by use of a general classification scheme and to determine clinical features and laboratory test results that could be used to differentiate between the various forms of dysmyelopoiesis in cats.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Sample Population—Bone marrow slides from 34 cats.
Procedures—Medical records of cats in which dysmyelopoiesis was diagnosed on the basis of blood and bone marrow analyses from 1996 to 2005 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion in the study were findings of > 10% dysplastic cells in 1 or more hematologic cell lines in the bone marrow and concurrent cytopenias in the blood. Cats that met these criteria were classified into subcategories of myelodysplastic syndromes or secondary dysmyelopoiesis on the basis of reevaluation of slides.
Results—Of 189 bone marrow slides reviewed, 34 (14.9%) had > 10% dysplastic cells in 1 or more cell lines. Cats were subcategorized as having myelodys-plastic syndrome with excessive numbers of blast cells (n = 13), myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory cytopenias (8), a variant form of myelodysplastic syndrome (1), and secondary dysmyelopoiesis (12). Findings of dysmyelopoiesis and autoagglutination in cats with myelodysplastic syndrome and in those with immune-mediated anemia complicated differentiating between the 2 conditions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differentiating cats with myelodysplastic syndromes from cats with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia was difficult because severe anemia and autoagglutination may be concurrent findings in both conditions. Differentiating between myelodysplastic syndrome with excessive numbers of blast cells and myelodysplastic syndrome with refractory cytopenias was useful in predicting clinical outcome.
Objective—To determine the frequency, potential causes, and clinical and clinicopathologic features of hemophagocytic syndrome in dogs.
Animals—24 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Records for dogs in which diagnostic bone marrow specimens (including an aspiration smear and core biopsy material) were obtained from 1996 to 2005 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were presence of bicytopenia or pancytopenia in the blood and > 2% hemophagocytic macrophages in the bone marrow aspirate.
Results—Of 617 bone marrow specimens evaluated, evidence of hemophagocytic syndrome was detected in 24 (3.9%). The Tibetan Terrier breed was overrepresented among dogs with hemophagocytic syndrome. Clinical signs associated with hemophagocytic syndrome included fever, icterus, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and diarrhea. Hemophagocytic syndrome was associated with immune-mediated, infectious, and neoplastic-myelodysplastic conditions and also occurred as an idiopathic condition. Overall, dogs with infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome had better 1-month survival rates than dogs with immune-associated and idiopathic hemophagocytic syndrome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that hemophagocytic syndrome may occur more frequently in dogs than has previously been suspected on the basis of the paucity of reported cases. Although most dogs had definable underlying disease conditions, idiopathic hemophagocytic syndrome was also identified. Hemophagocytic syndrome of any cause is potentially life-threatening; however, the prognosis should be adjusted on the basis of the associated disease process and potential for successful treatment.
Objectives—To examine clinical features, laboratory test results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA).
Animals—13 dogs with severe nonregenerative anemia and bone marrow erythroid aplasia.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs determined to have PRCA on the basis of results of blood and bone marrow analysis between 1996 and 2000 were reviewed. Criteria for inclusion in the study were severe nonregenerative anemia (Hct < 20%; reticulocyte count < 1.0%), selective erythroid aplasia in bone marrow, and lack of underlying diseases that may have caused the anemia.
Results—Median age of dogs was 6.5 years. Females were significantly overrepresented. Median Hct was 10%, and median reticulocyte count was 0.1%. Direct Coombs' test results were negative for all dogs tested, and spherocytosis was evident in 2 dogs. All dogs were treated with prednisolone, and 2 dogs were treated with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. Responses to treatment were complete, partial, and poor in 10, 1, and 2 dogs, respectively. Median time required to achieve an increase of 5% or more in Hct was 38 days, and median time to complete remission was 118 days. Of 10 dogs for which follow-up information was available, only 1 required long-term immunosuppressive treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with PRCA appear to respond readily to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs; however, hematologic responses may not be observed for weeks to months after initiation of treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:93–95)
Objective—To identify the incidence, potential causes, and clinical and clinicopathologic features of bone marrow necrosis in dogs.
Animals—34 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Reports of cytologic examinations of bone marrow specimens performed between 1996 and 2004 were reviewed. All reports that indicated the presence of necrosis, stromal disruption, phagocytic macrophages, individual cell necrosis, or myelofibrosis were evaluated further.
Results—Of 609 reports of bone marrow evaluations performed during the study period, 34 (5.6%) had evidence of bone marrow necrosis. Nine dogs had no evidence of associated diseases or drug or toxin exposure, and 25 dogs had associated disease conditions or drug exposures. All 9 dogs with idiopathic bone marrow necrosis were anemic (mean Hct, 14%), but only 3 had neutropenia, and 3 had thrombocytopenia. All 9 had myelofibrosis. Of the 25 dogs with associated disease conditions or drug exposures, only 14 (56%) had anemia (mean Hct, 33%). In addition, 14 (56%) had neutropenia and 18 (72%) had thrombocytopenia. Only 10 (40%) had myelofibrosis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that bone marrow necrosis may be common in dogs with hematologic disorders. In most dogs, bone marrow necrosis was associated with an underlying disease condition or drug exposure, but idiopathic bone marrow necrosis was also identified. Disease conditions that should increase suspicion of possible bone marrow necrosis include sepsis, lymphosarcoma, and systemic lupus erythematosus; drug exposures that should increase suspicion of possible bone marrow necrosis include chemotherapeutic agents, phenobarbital, carprofen, metronidazole, and mitotane. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:263–267)
Objective—To evaluate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced activation of equine neutrophils in blood.
Sample Population—Blood samples from 5 healthy adult Thoroughbreds.
Procedure—Neutrophil integrin (CD11/CD18) expression, size variation, degranulation, and deformability were measured with and without incubation with LPS. Time and concentration studies were done. The mechanism of endotoxin-induced neutrophil activation was investigated by inactivating complement or preincubating neutrophils with inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis, prostaglandin-leukotriene synthesis, or plateletactivating factor.
Results—Incubation of equine neutrophils with LPS increased cell surface expression of CD11/CD18, decreased neutrophil deformability, increased and decreased neutrophil size, and induced neutrophil degranulation. The LPS-induced neutrophil activation was attenuated by addition of inhibitors of TNF-α and prostaglandin-leukotriene synthesis.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Equine neutrophils are readily activated in vitro by LPS, resulting in increased expression of integrin adhesion molecules, decreased deformability, variation in neutrophil size, and degranulation. The tests used to detect activated neutrophils in this study may be useful in detecting in vivo neutrophil activation in horses with sepsis and endotoxemia. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:811–815)
Objective—To evaluate the activation status of neutrophils in blood samples obtained from horses with naturally occurring colic associated with strangulating obstruction, nonstrangulating obstruction, or inflammatory bowel disease.
Animals—30 horses with naturally occurring colic and 30 healthy control horses.
Procedure—Activation status of neutrophils was determined by assessing the number of neutrophils that could pass through filters with 5-µm pores, cellsurface CD11-CD18 expression, and alterations in size and granularity of neutrophils.
Results—Horses with impaction or gas colic did not have evidence of activated neutrophils. Horses with inflammatory bowel disease consistently had evidence of activated neutrophils, including decreased leukocyte deformability, increased CD11-CD18 expression, increased neutrophil size, and decreased neutrophil granularity. Horses with strangulating colic had variable results. Of horses with strangulating colic, 7 of 14 had marked changes in filtration pressures, 5 of 14 had increased CD11-CD18 expression, 6 of 14 had changes in neutrophil size, and 5 of 14 had changes in neutrophil granularity. Among horses with strangulating colic, changes in deformability, size, and granularity of neutrophils correlated with an adverse outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activated neutrophils were detected in all horses with inflammatory bowel disease and a few horses with strangulating colic. Correlation of activated neutrophils with horses that had strangulating colic that died or were euthanatized indicates that activated neutrophils are a negative prognostic indicator. Additional studies are needed to determine whether activated neutrophils contribute directly to the adverse outcome in horses with strangulating colic. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1364–1368)