Objective—To determine the functionality of canine
anti- Malassezia IgE via the passive transfer of immediate
hypersensitivity localized to the skin (ie, cutaneous
anaphylaxis) from atopic dogs with dermatitis
attributable to overgrowth of Malassezia pachydermatis
( Malassezia dermatitis [MD]) to healthy recipient
dogs by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner (P-K) technique.
Animals—7 clinically normal dogs, 32 atopic dogs
with MD, serum from 11 atopic dogs with MD, and 3
healthy dogs without prior sensitization to M pachydermatis.
Procedure—Serum from atopic dogs with MD was
used for P-K tests in 3 clinically normal recipient
dogs. Serial dilutions of untreated, heat-inactivated,
IgE-absorbed, and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-
absorbed (control) aliquots of serum were injected
ID in triplicate for dermal sensitization. Twenty-four,
48, and 72 hours later, a crude extract of M pachydermatis
was injected ID into the sites used for
sensitization injections, and immediate hypersensitivity
reactions were graded on a 4-point scale.
Results—Untreated serum caused P-K reactivity
beginning 24 hours after passive sensitization and
persisting through 72 hours (titers, 1:32 to 1:64).
Heat inactivation and IgE-absorption of serum
eliminated P-K reactivity, whereas treatment of
serum with BSA did not.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of
P-K test results supports the passive transfer of cutaneous
anaphylaxis by anti-Malassezia IgE and indicates
it is functional in type-1 hypersensitivity reactions
of atopic dogs with MD. Reduction or blockade
of anti-Malassezia IgE in atopic dogs with MD may
provide better clinical control of the disease.
(Am J Vet Res 2003;64:262–266)
Objective—To determine antidermatophyte immunologic
effects of an experimental combined live-inactivated
dermatophytosis vaccine (CLIDV) and a commercial
inactivated dermatophytosis vaccine (IDV) in
cats and to evaluate adverse effects associated with
administration of these vaccines.
Procedure—Cats were injected with 2 doses of
CLIDV at the standard dosage or 1 dose of CLIDV at
10 times the standard dosage; IDV was administered
at the manufacturer-recommended dosage. Cats
were observed for illness and reactions at inoculation
sites. Periodically, samples were obtained for fungal
culture, lymphocyte blastogenesis test (LBT) as an
indicator of cell-mediated immunity against dermatophyte
antigens, and antidermatophyte IgG titers.
Following vaccination, cats were challenge-exposed
by topical application of Microsporum canis macroconidia
and examined weekly for clinical signs of dermatophytosis.
Results—6 of 10 cats given CLIDV developed focal
crusts at the injection site that resolved without treatment;
these were areas of dermatophyte infection
with the vaccine strain. Antidermatophyte IgG titers
increased significantly with all vaccination protocols.
Cellular immunity against M canis increased slightly
and variably during the vaccination period and did not
differ significantly between vaccinated and control
cats. All cats developed dermatophyte infection after
challenge exposure. Vaccination with CLIDV or IDV
was associated with slightly reduced severity of initial
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inoculation
with IDV or CLIDV did not provide prophylactic immunity
against topical challenge exposure with M canis.
Inoculation with either vaccine did not provide a more
rapid cure of an established infection. (Am J Vet Res
Procedure—8 cats were given lufenuron PO (133
mg/cat/mo, equivalent to a dose of 100 to 130 mg/kg
[45 to 59 mg/lb] at the beginning of the study and 25 to
35 mg/kg [11 to 16 mg/lb] at the end of the study), and
8 were given lufenuron SC (40 mg every 6 months). The
remaining 8 were used as untreated control cats. After
4 months, cats were challenged by the introduction of
cats with mild, experimentally induced M canis infection
into the rooms where cats were housed. Extent of
resulting infections in the naïve cats was monitored for
22 weeks by physical examination and fungal culture.
Results—All lufenuron-treated and control cats
became infected with M canis. Cats treated with
lufenuron had significantly lower infection scores,
compared with control cats, during the early weeks
following exposure, and there was a more prolonged
initial progression phase of the infection. Once infections
reached peak intensity, they resolved over similar
periods in lufenuron-treated and control cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that oral or SC administration of lufenuron to
cats, at the dosages used and under the conditions of
this study, did not prevent establishment of dermatophytosis
following exposure to infected cats.
Infection was established more slowly among cats
treated with lufenuron, but once established, infection
resolved in approximately the same amount of
time in lufenuron-treated as in control cats. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2003;222:1216–1220)
Objective—To determine the effect of vaccination on
serum concentrations of total and antigen-specific IgE
Animals—20 female Beagles.
Procedure—Groups of 5 dogs each were vaccinated
repeatedly between 8 weeks and 4 years of age with
a multivalent and rabies vaccine, a multivalent vaccine
only, or a rabies vaccine only. A fourth group of 5 dogs
served as unvaccinated controls. Serum concentrations
of total immunoglobulins and antigen-specific
IgE were determined following vaccination.
Results—The multivalent vaccine had little effect
on serum total IgE concentrations. The concentration
of IgE increased slightly following vaccination
for rabies at 16 weeks and 1 year of age and
increased greatly after vaccination at 2 and 3 years
of age in most dogs, with a distinct variation
between individual dogs. Vaccination had no effect
on serum concentrations of IgA, IgG, and IgM as
measured at 2 and 3 years of age. The rabies vaccine
contained aluminum adjuvant in contrast to the
multivalent vaccine. An increase of IgE that was
reactive with vaccine antigens, including bovine
serum albumin and bovine fibronectin, was detected
in some of the dogs vaccinated for rabies. There
was no significant correlation between serum concentrations
of total IgE and antigen-specific IgE following
vaccination. Serum total IgE concentration
rapidly returned to preimmunization concentrations
in most dogs, but high concentrations of antigenspecific
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Vaccination of
dogs for rabies increases serum concentrations of total
IgE and induces IgE specific for vaccine antigens, including
tissue culture residues. Vaccination history should be
considered in the interpretation of serum total IgE concentrations.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:611–616)
Objective—To determine the efficacy of triamcinolone
acetonide topical solution (TTS) in dogs for use in
reduction of clinical signs of pruritic inflammatory skin
diseases of a known or suspected allergic basis and
to evaluate adverse effects associated with TTS
Animals—103 pruritic adult dogs with known or suspected
allergic skin disease.
Procedure—Dogs were treated for 4 weeks with TTS
or with vehicle solution (control dogs) in a multiplecenter
study. Clinical signs were scored by owners
and by examining veterinarians before and after treatment.
Blood samples obtained before and after treatment
were subjected to routine hematologic and
serum biochemical analyses.
Results—Treatment success, as defined by an
improvement of at least 2 of 6 grades in overall
clinical score, was evident in 35 of 52 (67%) TTStreated
dogs (mean improvement, 1.98) and 12 of
51 (24%) control dogs (mean improvement, 0.29).
For several criteria, TTS was significantly more
effective than vehicle in reducing clinical signs.
Minor alterations in hematologic determinations in
TTS-treated dogs were limited to slightly lower
total leukocyte, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts
after treatment. Minor adverse effects were reported
by owners in 6 of 52 (12%) TTS-treated and 9 of
51 (18%) control dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Triamcinolone
used as a spray solution at a concentration approximately
one-sixth the concentration of triamcinolone
topical preparations currently available for veterinary
use is effective for short-term alleviation of allergic
pruritus in dogs. Adverse effects are few and mild
and, thus, do not preclude prolonged treatment with
the solution. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:408–413)