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  • Author or Editor: Douglas I. Hepler x
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Summary

Although cats are less susceptible to infection with Dirofilaria immitis than are dogs, the possibility of severe consequences from infection or adulticidal treatment renders preventive treatment a desirable alternative in endemic areas. To evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime as a chemoprophylactic agent in cats, 48 cats were inoculated with infective D immitis larvae. Single oral treatment with 2.3 mg of milbemycin oxime (0.5 to 0.9 mg/kg of body weight) at 30 or 60 days after inoculation with infective larvae gave strong but incomplete protection. Treatment at 60, as well as 90, days after inoculation with infective larvae was completely effective in preventing development of infection. A control group of inoculated, but untreated, cats was monitored biweekly for hematologic changes and for changes in parasite-specific serum antigen and antibody concentrations. Pronounced increases in total leukocyte counts and eosinophil numbers were associated with the estimated time of in vivo molting from fourth- to fifth-stage larvae. Antibody reactivity correlated with infection status, but serum antigen concentrations through 161 days after inoculation were undetectable.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Previous work indicated that adult Ancylostoma caninum can be removed from experimentally infected dogs, using a formulation of milbemycin oxime at dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight. To determine the efficacy of this treatment in dogs naturally infected with adult hookworms, 24 mixed-breed dogs with patent hookworm infections were purchased from an out-of-state vendor, and 6 male and 6 female dogs were assigned to either a control group or a group that would be treated. Dogs were treated 10 days after their arrival and were euthanatized 1 week after treatment. Beginning 3 days before treatment, fecal samples were collected daily from all dogs, and the number of Ancylostoma eggs per gram of dry weight of feces was determined from each sample. By 1 week after treatment, the mean number of eggs being passed by the treated dogs had dropped from 12,700 to 10 eggs/g of dried feces; there was no apparent change in fecal egg counts for dogs of the control group. At necropsy, the mean number of adult A caninum in dogs of the treated and control groups was 1.3 and 56, respectively; in these naturally infected dogs, efficacy of treatment was calculated to be 97.8%. The mean number of adult Trichuris vulpis recovered in dogs of the control and treated groups at necropsy was 24 and 0, respectively, which yielded treatment efficacy of 100%. Although Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis appeared also to be removed by use of this dosage, too few dogs were in the study to calculate meaningful efficacies. The milbemycin oxime formulation appeared to have no effect on the cestodes (Taenia pisiformis and Dipylidium caninum) and spirurids (Physaloptera rara) that were present in some dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Previous work had indicated that the 2 canine hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala, may differ in their susceptibility to treatment with milbemycin oxime. Thus, the study reported here was to examine the effects of this drug on concomitant infections in experimentally infected dogs. Twenty specific-pathogen-free Beagles were inoculated orally with 500 infective-stage larvae from a mixture of larval A caninum and U stenocephala. Quantitative fecal examinations were performed weekly, beginning the day of infection. The dogs were assigned to 2 equal groups, 1 group that received the compound and 1 that received a placebo. The dogs were treated on postinoculation days 30, 60, and 90. For A caninum, egg counts dropped precipitously after the first treatment, and no eggs of this species were found in the feces of any of the treated dogs after the second treatment. The treatments had no significant effect on the mean egg counts made on U stenocephala, although 2 dogs stopped passing eggs entirely after the second treatment. At necropsy, no A caninum were found in any of the treated dogs; the mean number recovered from the control-group dogs was 56.1. Significant difference was not found in the mean number of adult U stenocephala recovered from the treated and control groups (27.0 and 21.7, respectively).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Three studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of milbemycin oxime in the prevention of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs. Dogs were given single or multiple experimental inoculations with infective third-stage D immitis larvae and were treated with milbemycin oxime at a target dosage of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight either once or at monthly intervals at various times after inoculation. The compound was effective in preventing infection when 1 dose was administered 30 or 45 days after inoculation. Significant, but incomplete, protection was achieved when single treatments were administered 60 or 90 days after inoculation. Multiple monthly treatments beginning 60 days after inoculation appeared to provide additive effects that resulted in restoration of complete efficacy.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The efficacy of milbemycin oxime was evaluated at dosages of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mg/kg of body weight in dogs naturally infected with mature Ancylostoma spp, at a dosage of 0.50 mg/kg in dogs with experimentally induced immature and mature A caninum, and at dosages of 0.55 to 0.86 mg/kg in dogs naturally infected with mature Trichuris vulpis. Milbemycin oxime was 95 and 99% effective against mature Ancylostoma spp at dosages of 0.50 and 0.75 mg/kg, respectively, but only 49% effective at a dosage of 0.25 mg/kg. Efficacy was 49% against pulmonary L3-L4 stages of A caninum (36 hours after inoculation), > 80% against L4 (120 hours after inoculation) and early L5 stages (216 hours after inoculation), and > 90% against experimentally induced mature stages (360 hours after inoculation). Milbemycin oxime was also 97% effective in the removal of mature Tr vulpis from naturally infected dogs. Adverse reactions were not observed following treatment in any of the dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Twenty-four specific-pathogen-free Beagles were each given 50 cysticerci of Taenia pisiformis that had been harvested from experimentally infected rabbits. Quantitative fecal egg counts and fecal screening for recovery of passed segments were performed on postinoculation days 56 through 70. Twenty-three of 24 dogs fed cysticerci developed patent infections. The 23 dogs with patent infections were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and treated with nitroscanate or a placebo 60 days after inoculation. Egg counts in the treated dogs had markedly decreased by the second day after treatment, and by the sixth day after treatment, segments were not found in the feces of any of the treated animals. The control dogs continued to pass eggs and segments in their feces throughout the 9 days after treatment. The dogs were euthanatized and necropsied 70 days after being inoculated. At necropsy, the mean number of scolices recovered from control dogs was 24.6, the mean number of scolices recovered from treated dogs was 0.25. Worms recovered from the control dogs were intact, gravid cestodes. Efficacy of treatment with nitroscanate at a mean dosage of 56 mg/kg of body weight was 98.9%.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research