Case Description—A 1.4-year-old sexually intact male Standard Poodle was evaluated with a history of urinating on its left forelimb and lower portion of the thorax.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed that the dog had an unusually elevated (tucked) abdominal wall and prominent dome-shaped thoracic wall. These anatomic changes altered the angle of the urine stream, resulting in the dog's soiling the xiphoid region of the thorax and left forelimb.
Treatment and Outcome—The dorsal half of the preputial ostium was closed surgically to divert the urine stream in a ventral direction. The ventral portion of the ostium was reciprocally enlarged. Postoperatively, the dog urinated in a downward direction, eliminating urine contact with the body.
Clinical Relevance—The preputial orifice (ostium) plays an important role in the shape and direction of the urine stream exiting the penile urethra. Dogs with an elevated abdominal wall and prominent dome-shaped thorax may be prone to contamination of the lower portion of the thorax and forelimbs with urine during normal micturition. Partial closure of the dorsal preputial ostium, with reciprocal enlargement of the lower half of the orifice, can create a deflective barrier that effectively diverts the urine stream in a ventral direction.
The medical records of 7 hypercalcemic cats with primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated. Mean age was 12.9 years, with ages ranging from 8 to 15 years; 5 were female; 5 were Siamese, and 2 were of mixed breed. The most common clinical signs detected by owners were anorexia and lethargy. A cervical mass was palpable in 4 cats. Serum calcium concentrations were 11.1 to 22.8 mg/dl, with a mean of 15.8 mg/dl calculated from each cat's highest preoperative value. The serum phosphorus concentration was low in 2 cats, within reference limits in 4, and slightly high in 1 cat. The bun concentration was > 60 mg/dl in 2 cats, 31 to 35 mg/dl in 2 cats, and < 30 mg/dl in 3 cats. Abnormalities were detected in serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase activities from 2 or 3 cats. Parathormone (pth) concentrations were measured in 2 cats before and after surgery. The preoperative pth concentration was within reference limits in 1 cat and was high in 1 cat. The pth concentrations were lower after surgery in both cats tested. A solitary parathyroid adenoma was surgically removed from 5 cats, bilateral parathyroid cystadenomas were surgically resected in 1 cat, and a parathyroid carcinoma was diagnosed at necropsy in 1 cat. None of the cats had clinical problems with hypocalcemia after surgery, although 2 cats developed hypocalcemia without tetany, one of which was controlled with oral administration of dihydrotachysterol and the other with oral administration of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D. All 5 of the cats that underwent removal of an adenoma were alive at least 240 days after surgery. Four of these 5 cats were normocalcemic at the last examination. The cat that had bilateral cystadenomas was lost to follow-up evaluation 110 days after surgery. One of the cats with a parathyroid adenoma was reevaluated 569 days after the first surgery. It was found to be hypercalcemic (21.5 mg/dl), subsequently died, and was identified as having a parathyroid adenoma and a parathyroid carcinoma on histologic evaluation of tissue removed from the neck at necropsy.