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SUMMARY

In 6 adult horses anesthetized with pentobarbital, the hemodynamic responses of the equine digit to infusion of dopamine were evaluated by use of an isolated extra corporeal pump perfused digital preparation. Digital blood flow was maintained at a constant rate that was independent of systemic hemodynamic changes. Three sequential experiments were performed on each horse. In the first experiment (n = 6), dopamine was infused iv at rates of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 μg/kg/min. For the second experiment (n = 5), dopamine (400 μg/ml) was infused into the digital artery at the rates of 0.07, 0.7, and 1.2 ml/min. The third experiment (n = 5) consisted of a 5-minute intra-arterial infusion of phentoalamine followed by the intra-arterial infusion of dopamine while continuing the infusion of phentolamine. Digital venous, arterial, and capillary pressures, total digital vascular resistance, and precapillary to postcapillary resistance ratios were determined in each experiment.

Systemic infusion of dopamine did not induce changes in the hemodynamics of the digital vasculature. Digital arterial infusion of dopamine alone resulted in a dosedependent increase in arterial pressure, total digital vascular resistance, and an increase in the precapillary to postcapillary resistance ratio. Phentolamine attenuated the vasoconstrictive response elicited by intra-arterial infusion of dopamine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Using a pump-perfused extracorporeal isolated digital preparation, the effects of a 30-minute infusion of either saline solution (control) or endotoxin on equine digital hemodynamics and microvascular function were determined. Digital blood flow and arterial, venous, and capillary pressures were recorded at 15-minute intervals for 150 minutes. From these data, total vascular resistance and pre- and postcapillary resistances were calculated. Isogravimetric capillary filtration coefficient, vascular compliance, and the osmotic reflection coefficient were determined after the last hemodynamic measurements were taken.

Changes in hemodynamic values of control equine digits were not observed. During the 120 minutes after infusion of endotoxin, digital blood flow decreased 43%, and total vascular resistance increased 89%. Precapillary resistance increased 122%, but postcapillary resistance did not change significantly. Changes in vascular compliance or the capillary filtration coefficient were not observed in response to either treatment. The osmotic reflection coefficient, an index of permeability, did not differ significantly between digits of the endotoxin-treated and control groups. These data indicate that the increase in vascular resistance during endotoxemia may have been attributable to arterial/arteriolar constriction and that neither the permeability nor the surface area of the exchange vasculature within the digit was significantly affected by endotoxin. Although marked alterations in vascular function are seen after administration of endotoxin, these changes do not parallel those documented in association with experimentally induced laminitis.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A carbohydrate overload model was used in 8 horses to evaluate Starling forces and hemodynamics of the digit during the prodromal stage of acute laminitis. A pump-perfused extracorporeal digital preparation was used to evaluate blood flow, arterial pressure, venous pressure, capillary pressure, isogravimetric capillary filtration coefficient, osmotic reflection coefficient, and vascular compliance.

From these data, pre- and postcapillary resistances and pre- to postcapillary resistance ratios were determined. Vascular and tissue oncotic pressures were estimated from plasma and lymph protein concentrations, respectively. The osmotic reflection coefficient, an estimation of capillary permeability, was determined by means of the lymph protein wash-down technique. Using the collected data, tissue pressure in the digit was calculated by use of the Starling equation.

In the isolated digit, mean isogravimetric capillary pressure was 55.13 mm of Hg, mean plasma and lymph oncotic pressures were 22.29 mm of Hg and 7.2 mm of Hg, respectively, the mean osmotic reflection coefficient was 0.66, the mean capillary filtration coefficient was 0.003 ml/min/mm of Hg/100 g, and mean interstitial fluid pressure was 44.82 mm of Hg. The high capillary pressure appeared to be caused by high vascular resistance from the venous side, predisposing to enhanced capillary filtration and interstitial fluid accumulation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis was studied in 15 horses during the prodromal stages of acute 1aminitis induced by carbohydrate overload. Progression of the disease was stopped 12 to 24 hours before the expected onset of lameness in trial 1 (8 horses) and at the onset of lameness in trial 2 (7 horses). The end points in each trial were identified by specific changes in blood pressures (trial 1) and by changes in pulse, rectal temperature, and arterial pressure (trial 2) that were anticipated on the basis of original description of the experimental model. Blood samples for hemostasis evaluation were collected before and after carbohydrate overload in trial 1 and after carbohydrate overload in trial 2.

Significant changes were not detected in platelet count, mean platelet volume, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen concentration, plasminogen concentration, α-2-antiplasmin, antithrombin III, protein C, thromboxane B2, or fibrin(ogen) degradation product concentration. We concluded that an imbalance in coagulation and fibrinolysis is not pathogenic in the onset of experimentally induced equine acute laminitis. Because several test methods used to evaluate hemostasis in these horses were new, reference values for 34 healthy adult horses were established.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association