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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in serum and CSF of cats after oral administration of extended-release (ER) levetiracetam.

ANIMALS

9 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats received 1 dose of a commercially available ER levetiracetam product (500 mg, PO). Thirteen blood and 10 CSF samples were collected over a 24-hour period for pharmacokinetic analysis. After 1 week, cats received 1 dose of a compounded ER levetiracetam formulation (500 mg, PO), and samples were obtained at the same times for analysis.

RESULTS

CSF concentrations of levetiracetam closely paralleled serum concentrations. There were significant differences between the commercially available product and the compounded formulation for mean ± SD serum maximum concentration (Cmax; 126 ± 33 μg/mL and 169 ± 51 μg/mL, respectively), Cmax corrected for dose (0.83 ± 0.10 μg/mL/mg and 1.10 ± 0.28 μg/mL/mg, respectively), and time to Cmax (5.1 ± 1.6 hours and 3.1 ± 1.5 hours, respectively). Half-life for the commercially available product and compounded formulation of ER levetiracetam was 4.3 ± 2.0 hours and 5.0 ± 1.6 hours, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The commercially available product and compounded formulation of ER levetiracetam both maintained concentrations in healthy cats 12 hours after oral administration that have been found to be therapeutic in humans (ie, 5 μg/mL). Results of this study supported dosing intervals of 12 hours, and potentially 24 hours, for oral administration of ER levetiracetam to cats. Monitoring of serum concentrations of levetiracetam can be used as an accurate representation of levetiracetam concentrations in CSF of cats.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US.

ANIMALS

10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021.

PROCEDURES

A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals’ course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case.

RESULTS

SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association