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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 43-kg (95-lb) 4-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated because of a 2-day history of dysuria.

Clinical Findings—Radiography and ultrasonography revealed hydronephrosis, hydroureter, and radiolucent, hyperechoic uroliths in the right kidney and ureter and the urinary bladder. Serum bile acids concentration was within the reference interval.

Treatment and Outcome—The uroliths in the bladder and right ureter were surgically removed and submitted for analysis. They were initially identified as urate uroliths; however, results of further analysis indicated uroliths were composed of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA), and 2,8-DHA was identified in a urine sample of the dog. Allopurinol was prescribed for the dog, and a purine-restricted diet was recommended.

Clinical Relevance—2,8-DHA uroliths are extremely rare in humans and dogs. Such uroliths may be underdiagnosed in humans because of variability of clinical signs and difficulty in differentiating 2,8-DHA and urate uroliths and crystalluria. Uroliths composed of 2,8-DHA may be misdiagnosed as urate uroliths in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine breed, sex, and seasonal predisposition for development of canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis in dogs.

Design

Retrospective case-control study.

Sample Population

Medical records from 283 dogs with confirmed CPV enteritis and from 834 age-matched control dogs that were healthy or had been admitted with nonenteric illness.

Procedure

Effects of season, breed, sex, and neutering on the risk of developing CPV enteritis were examined by calculation of unadjusted odds ratios and performance of multivariate analysis. Stratified and contingency table analyses were performed to identify interactions and confounding among variables.

Results

Rottweilers, American Pit Bull Terriers, Doberman Pinschers, and German Shepherd Dogs were at increased risk and Toy Poodles and Cocker Spaniels were at decreased risk for developing CPV enteritis, compared with that for mixed-breed dogs. For dogs more than 6 months old, sexually intact males were twice as likely as intact females to develop CPV enteritis. Dogs were 3 times more likely to be admitted with CPV enteritis in July, August, and September, compared with the rest of the year. Dogs were 12.7 times more likely to be admitted with CPV enteritis if they had not been currently vaccinated.

Clinical Implications

Lack of vaccination is a significant risk factor for development of CPV enteritis. Seasonal, sex, and breed predispositions for the development of CPV enteritis also exist. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:542–546)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To investigate individual- and community-level contextual variables as risk factors for submission of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths or magnesium ammonium phosphate (ie, struvite) uroliths for dogs to a national urolith center, as determined on the basis of urolith submission patterns.

Sample Population—Records of 7,297 dogs from Ontario, Canada, with CaOx or struvite uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from 1998 through 2006.

Procedures—Data were analyzed via multilevel multivariable logistic regression.

Results—Individual-level main effects and interactions significantly associated with the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths rather than struvite uroliths included age, sex, breed group, neuter status, body condition, dietary moisture content, diet type, sex-neuter status interaction, sex-age interaction, body condition-age interaction, and breed group—dietary moisture content interaction. In addition, median community family income and being located within a major urban center (ie, Toronto) were significant risk factors for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with submission of struvite uroliths.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Individual-level and dietary factors for dogs affected the risk of submission of CaOx uroliths, relative to that of struvite uroliths. Interactions among these variables need to be considered when assessing the impact of these risk factors. In addition, community-level or contextual factors (such as community family income and residing in a densely populated area of Ontario) also affected submission patterns, although most of the variance in the risk for submission of CaOx uroliths, compared with the risk for submission of struvite uroliths, was explained by individual-level factors. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1045–1054)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize and evaluate risk factors for suture-associated cystoliths in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—163 dogs and 13 cats with suture-associated cystoliths and 326 control dogs and 26 control cats with non–suture-associated cystoliths.

Procedures—Submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre received from 1999 to 2006 were reviewed. Case dogs and cats had cystoliths associated with visible suture or with hollow, cylindrical channels or suture knot impressions consistent with dissolved suture. Control dogs and cats had at least a single recurrent non–suture-associated cystolith submitted closest in time to the sample case. Associations among cystolith composition, recurrence times, sex, age, and breed were evaluated.

Results—Cases consisted of 92 dogs and 7 cats with visible suture and 71 dogs and 6 cats with dissolved suture. Suture-associated cystoliths represented 0.6% of canine cystoliths, 9.4% of recurrent canine cystoliths, 0.17% of feline cystoliths, and 4% of recurrent feline cystoliths. Sexually intact and neutered males were at increased odds of suture-associated cystoliths, relative to spayed female dogs. Shih Tzus, Lhasa Apsos, and Pomeranians were significantly predisposed to form suture-associated cystoliths. In dogs, compound suture-associated cystoliths were significantly more likely than other cystolith types (OR, 8.6). Dogs with suture-associated cystoliths had significantly shorter recurrence times than did control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Suture remnants in the bladder have an important role in recurrent cystolithiasis in dogs. Identification of risk factors is important for avoiding recurrence of iatrogenic cystoliths.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association