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  • Author or Editor: Dongwoo Chang x
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Abstract

Objective—To obtain quantitative variables of the abdominal aorta and both kidneys on the basis of time-attenuation curves (TACs) and to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for each kidney and the global GFR in clinically normal cats by use of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and Patlak analysis.

Animals—9 healthy cats.

Procedures—All the cats were anesthetized with propofol. Anesthesia was maintained by administration of isoflurane, and CT examination was performed in the anesthetized cats. The TACs and renal volume were measured by use of the baseline precontrast and single-slice dynamic scans. The CT-GFR of each kidney and the global CT-GFRs were calculated via Patlak plot analysis.

Results—CT-GFR results from 7 cats were valid. Peak aortic enhancement was detected between 9.0 and 14.0 seconds after iohexol injection, and the initial peak time of renal parenchymal enhancement was 15 to 24 seconds after iohexol injection. Mean ± SD global GFR was 2.06 ± 0.62 mL/min/kg. Mean ± SD CT-GFR of the right and left kidneys was 0.97 ± 0.32 mL/min/kg and 1.05 ± 0.31 mL/min/kg, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The CT-GFR method can be rapidly and conveniently performed in clinically normal cats. This combined structural-functional approach provided physiologic and morphological information on the kidneys of cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine serum cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and to evaluate associations among CCK concentration, PDH, and gallbladder mucocele (GBM).

ANIMALS 14 client-owned dogs with PDH and 14 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were separated into 4 groups: healthy dogs without gallbladder sludge (group A; n = 7), healthy dogs with gallbladder sludge (group B; 7), dogs with PDH and gallbladder sludge (group C; 8), and dogs with PDH and GBM (group D; 6). Serum CCK concentrations were then measured before and 1, 2, and 4 hours after consumption of a high-fat meal. Concentrations in dogs with PDH were also measured before and after trilostane treatment. Results were compared among groups and assessment points.

RESULTS Preprandial serum CCK concentrations in group C were significantly lower than those in groups A, B, and D, but no significant differences in postprandial CCK concentrations were identified among the groups 1, 2, or 4 hours after the meal. With respect to trilostane treatment of dogs with PDH, no significant differences were identified between pre- and post-trilostane serum CCK concentrations in group C or D. Median CCK concentration after trilostane treatment was higher in group D than in group C, but this difference was not significant.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The outcomes in this study did not support the hypothesis that a low circulating CCK concentration affects the development of GBM in dogs with PDH.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of position, time in that position, and positive end-expiratory pressure on ground-glass opacity caused by physiologic atelectasis on lung CT images and to determine effects of recumbency position before CT.

ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were placed in 4 positions (sternal, dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral recumbency) for 2 holding times (30 and 60 minutes). Dogs were then repositioned in sternal recumbency, and CT was performed at 2 positive end-expiratory pressures (0 and 15 mm Hg). Location, distribution, and degree of ground-glass opacities were evaluated on lung CT images. Volume and mean density of the lungs and ground-glass opacities as well as maximum density of ground-glass opacities were evaluated.

RESULTS Ground-glass opacities were mainly observed in parts of the lungs that were dependent during the various positions before CT, except for sternal recumbency. Opacities were reversible and decreased or disappeared after lung inflation. Ground-glass opacities were observed most frequently and had greatest severity when dogs were positioned in left lateral recumbency before CT. Ground-glass opacities were negligible for dogs positioned in sternal recumbency before CT.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Location and reversibility of ground-glass opacities may help clinicians distinguish whether they are attributable to atelectasis or a result of pathological changes. Dogs should be positioned in sternal recumbency to minimize the occurrence of ground-glass opacities, particularly when several procedures are performed before CT, which increases the time that a dog will remain in the same position.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of thiopental, propofol, and etomidate on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by the use of dynamic computed tomography in dogs.

Animals—17 healthy Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 2 mg of etomidate/kg (n = 5), 6 mg of propofol/kg (7), or 15 mg of thiopental/kg (5) during induction of anesthesia; anesthesia was subsequently maintained by isoflurane evaporated in 100% oxygen. A 1 mL/kg dosage of a 300 mg/mL solution of iohexol was administered at a rate of 3 mL/s during GFR measurement. Regions of interest of the right kidney were manually drawn to exclude vessels and fatty tissues and highlight the abdominal portion of the aorta. Iohexol clearance per unit volume of the kidney was calculated by use of Patlak plot analysis.

Results—Mean ± SD weight-adjusted GFR of the right kidney after induction of anesthesia with thiopental, propofol, and etomidate was 2.04 ± 0.36 mL/min/kg, 2.06 ± 0.29 mL/min/kg, and 2.14 ± 0.43 mL/min/kg, respectively. However, no significant differences in weight-adjusted GFR were detected among the treatment groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained for the measurement of GFR in anesthetized dogs after anesthetic induction with etomidate, propofol, or thiopental and maintenance with isoflurane did not differ significantly. Therefore, etomidate, propofol, or thiopental can be used in anesthesia-induction protocols that involve the use of isoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia without adversely affecting GFR measurements obtained by the use of dynamic computed tomography in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the use of color Doppler imaging (CDI) for determining the resistive index (RI) of the medial long posterior ciliary artery (mLPCA) in clinically normal conscious dogs.

Animals—18 (10 sexually intact males, 8 sexually intact females) dogs between 1 and 5 years old.

Procedure—Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed on both eyes with dogs in a sitting position. Each eye was imaged from the region dorsal to the zygomatic arch with the transducer positioned in a horizontal plane. The mLPCA was localized, and RI was calculated from velocities obtained for 3 similar Doppler waveforms. To determine the reproducibility of CDI-derived RI, measurements were repeated twice at a 10-day interval.

Results—Mean (± SD) RI of the mLPCA was 0.68 ± 0.07 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.70; n = 36 eyes). Resistive index did not significantly differ between right and left eyes or male and female dogs. In addition, body weight was not correlated with RI. Repeated measurements of RI did not yield significantly different results (interclass correlation coefficient, 0.8297).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Color Doppler imaging appears to be a valid technique for determination of RI of the mLPCA in conscious dogs. This technique may be useful for investigating the pathophysiologic processes of many ocular and orbital vascular disorders in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:211–214)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine optimal techniques for CT enterography in clinically normal dogs and to evaluate luminal distention after oral administration of lactulose solution as a contrast agent.

ANIMALS 15 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES CT was performed in a control group (2 dogs that underwent CT to evaluate metastasis and 5 other dogs). In a bolus administration group (5 dogs from the control group), lactulose solution (1.34 g/mL) was administered (60 mL/kg) rapidly via gastric tube to anesthetized dogs, and CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. In a continuous administration group of 8 other dogs, lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) was administered slowly via nasoesophageal tube over a period of 45 minutes. Then, 15 minutes after anesthetic induction, CT was performed every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Luminal distention of the small intestines was evaluated qualitatively by use of a 3-point scale.

RESULTS All small intestinal segments had poor luminal distention in the control group. The terminal ileum had poor luminal distention for the bolus administration group. Nearly all segments had good luminal distention for the continuous administration group with mild adverse effects. Luminal distention scores from 0 to 20 minutes after lactulose administration were significantly higher than scores from 30 to 60 minutes. Interobserver reproducibility was high for all intestinal segments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT performed between 0 and 20 minutes after continuous administration of lactulose solution (60 mL/kg) may reveal adequate luminal distention for examination of small intestinal segments in dogs.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine effects of hydrocortisone administration on serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations, abdominal fat distribution, and mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin in abdominal adipose tissue of dogs.

ANIMALS

12 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs received hydrocortisone (8.5 mg/kg; n = 6) or a placebo (6) orally every 12 hours for 90 days. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured with a canine-specific ELISA on the day before (day 0; baseline) and during (days 1, 3, 7, 30, 60, and 90) administration. On days 0, 30, 60, and 90, abdominal fat mass was quantified with CT, and mRNA expression of leptin and adiponectin in abdominal fat was analyzed by use of a PCR assay.

RESULTS

Hydrocortisone administration resulted in an increase in visceral fat mass on days 60 and 90, compared with the mass at baseline. Visceral fat mass at the level of L3 increased during hydrocortisone administration. Serum leptin concentration began to increase on day 1 and was significantly higher than the baseline concentration on days 30 and 60. Serum adiponectin concentration on days 30, 60, and 90 was significantly lower than the baseline concentration. Leptin and adiponectin mRNA expression in abdominal fat was greater on day 30, compared with expression at baseline, but lower on days 60 and 90, compared with expression on day 30. Serum leptin concentration and visceral fat mass were correlated.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Hydrocortisone administration affected abdominal fat distribution and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations through dysregulation of leptin and adiponectin expression.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research