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SUMMARY

Five castrated male llamas (mean body weight, 94 kg) were studied in an energy balance trial to determine maintenance energy requirement of llamas. Llamas were fed a 50% oat hay-50% pelleted concentrate diet (2.43 Mcal of metabolizable energy/kg of diet dry matter) at approximately 1.6% of body weight (bw). An 8-day total collection digestion trial was used to determine fecal and urine energy losses. Heat production and methane emissions were determined via indirect respiration calorimetry-measurements on each llama fed at the same level of intake as during the digestion trial and subsequently on days 3 and 4 of a period of nonfeeding. Fecal, urine, and methane energy losses of the llamas fed near-maintenance intake were 32.5, 3.5, and 7.1% of gross energy intake, respectively. The postabsorptive metabolic rate, commonly called nonfed (fasting) heat production, was 59.3 kcal/bw 0.75. Using a linear relation between postabsorptive and maintenance energy requirement and efficiency of energy use below maintenance of 0.702, metabolizable energy requirement at maintenance was determined to be 84.5 kcal/bw 0.75.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Muscle damage attributable to selenium (Se)/vitamin E deficiencies is known to develop at birth or later in lambs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether and when muscle damage develops in utero. Thirty pregnant ewes maintained on Se-deficient forages from birth were allotted to 3 equal groups. Half of each group was given a single im injection of 0.056 mg of Se/kg of body weight, 1 month before parturition. At 3 weeks before parturition, cesarean section-derived fetuses from Se-deficient ewes did not have evidence of muscle damage. At 2 weeks before parturition, fetuses from Se-deficient ewes had biochemical evidence of congenital nutritional myopathy, as evidenced by low blood Se concentration (P < 0.05) and by increased plasma creatine kinase (P < 0.001) and lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.01) activities, compared with fetuses from Se-treated ewes. Thus, for optimal protection of fetuses and newborn lambs in Se-deficient areas, Se should be administered to ewes at least 1 month before parturition.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Zoometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis were evaluated as methods of body composition determination in healthy cats. Zoometric and impedance measurements were taken on 22 anesthetized adult cats of various ages, genders, breeds, and body weights. The cats were then euthanatized. The bodies were processed through a tissue homogenizer and free-catch specimens were taken, freeze-dried, and analyzed for total body water, protein, fat, potassium, and ash content. Stepwise regression analysis was implemented to identify statistically significant relationships between the chemically determined dependent variables (total body water, protein, potassium, fat-free mass, fat mass, and percent body fat) and the zoometric measurements, with or without bioelectrical impedance analysis. Statistical analysis revealed high correlations between the dependent variables and the corresponding predicted values of those variables. Body weight alone was a poor predictor of body composition in these cats. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that zoometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements may serve as practical, noninvasive, simple, and accurate methods for estimating body composition in domestic cats.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium parvum from California cow-calf herds with respect to age, geographic region, temporal effects, and association with watery feces.

Animals

Cows and calves from 38 beef cow-calf operations.

Procedure

Fecal specimens were collected and examined for C parvum oocysts, using immunofluorescent microscopy. Associations between age, geographic region, month of collection, watery feces, and likelihood of shedding C parvum were evaluated.

Results

3.9% of cattle were shedding C parvum oocysts. Prevalence of shedding among calves ranged from 0 to 13%, and was 0.6% among cattle ≥ 12 months old. The odds of shedding C parvum among 2-month-old calves were 41 times greater than among cattle > 4 months old. The odds of shedding C parvum among cattle tested in May were 8.7 times greater than among cattle tested during June, July, or August. The odds of infected individuals having watery feces were 3 to 4 times greater than for noninfected individuals, but the etiologic fraction was only 8 to 9%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Substantial fecal shedding of C parvum by cow-calf herds was limited to calves 1 to 4 months old, with low prevalence detected in older animals. Risk of contamination of watersheds with C parvum was limited to those periods when young calves were in the herd. Although the odds of having watery feces were greater for animals infected with C parvum than for noninfected animals, the low etiologic fraction suggests that most calves with watery feces were not infected with C parvum. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60: 420-425)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research