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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Historical and physical signs associated with prostatic disease diagnosed in dogs over a 5.5-year period were defined. One hundred seventy-seven male dogs were determined to have prostatic abnormality. Of the 177 dogs, 87 were determined to have specific prostatic disease. The most common prostatic disease identified in this study was bacterial prostatitis, followed by prostatic cyst, prostatic adenocarcinoma, and benign hyperplasia. The most common prostatic disease identified in neutered dogs was prostatic adenocarcinoma. Mean age at onset of prostatic disease was 8.9 years; statistically significant difference was not observed between age at onset of the various types of prostatic disease identified. Doberman Pinscher was the most common breed with prostate disease. Twenty-nine percent of dogs with a specifically identifiable prostatic disease had signs of systemic illness, 41% had signs of lower urinary tract disease, 28% had signs of gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, and 13% had signs of locomotor difficulty.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Effective renal plasma flow (erpf) was evaluated, using the measurement of p-aminohippurate clearance (cl pah ) and quantitative renal scintigraphy (qrs) with 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3). The cl pah and qrs determinations were made in 6 dogs: 2 determinations for each dog before, and 1 determination after induction of renal failure by administration of amphotericin B. Least-squares regression analysis was used to derive an equation to estimate erpf from qrs data. The results indicated that qrs, using 99mTc-MAG3, correlated reasonably well (r = 0.82, P < 0.001) with erpf determined from the cl pah value. The right kidney contributed 53.3% of global erpf (P = 0.002). Hepatobiliary excretion of 99mTc-MAG3 was variable within each dog. There was not a consistent pattern with respect to time or renal function. All dogs had nausea or emesis, or both, after iv administration of 99mTc-MAG3. The qrs method with 99mTc-MAG3 provides an adequate means to estimate erpf in healthy dogs and dogs with renal failure.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The nuclear imaging technique known as quantitative renal scintigraphy was validated as a means to assess the kidney function of cats. Renal function tests were performed in 6 healthy cats and 3 cats with clinical manifestations of kidney failure. In addition, the nephrotoxic drugs, gentamicin sulfate, or amphotericin B were used in an attempt to induce renal failure in 4 cats. Using linear regression analysis, equations were derived to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (gfr) on the basis of the renal percent uptake of 99mTc-diethylenetriami-nepentaacetic acid (99mTc-dtpa). One-way anova and Student’s t test were used to evaluate treatment effects on clearances of inulin and creatinine, percent uptake of 99mTc-dtpa, and serum creatinine concentrations. The results show that the percent uptake of 99mTc-dtpa by the kidneys correlated well with the GFR obtained through the clearance of inulin. Thus, it was concluded that quantitative renal scintigraphy, using 99mTc-dtpa as a marker of kidney function, is an adequate technique to estimate the kidney function of healthy cats and cats with functional renal impairment. The best estimate of the gfr of cats, using the percentage dose of 99mTc-dtpa, was obtained on the 1- to 3-minute postinjection interval of the marker, using data that was background-subtracted, but not corrected for tissue absorption of gamma rays or binding of 99mTc-DTPA to plasma proteins. There was no significant difference in the mean inulin clearance, creatinine clearance, or percent uptake of 99mTc-dtpa between the 3 treatment groups of this study. Therefore, it was concluded that neither gentamicin nor amphotericin B are useful drugs in eliciting losses of feline kidney function that may be measurable through the procedures used in this study. Contrary to all other gfr studies in the cat, this study did not use any form of pharmacologic restraint. Therefore, the findings from this study are expected to reflect accurately the true gfr of healthy, nonanesthetized cats.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Effective renal plasma flow (erpf) was evaluated, using continuous-infusion p-aminohippurate clearance (cl pah ) and single-injection plasma clearance of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc-MAG3; cl mag3) methods. Simultaneous clearance determinations were made in 6 dogs: 2 determinations for each dog before, and 1 determination after renal failure was induced by administration of amphotericin B. Linear regression analysis was used to derive an equation to estimate erpf from cl mag3 after the single iv injection. A Student’s t-test was used to compare pharmacokinetics between the dogs when they were healthy and when they were in renal failure. An F-test was used to determine the appropriate Student’s t-test. Results indicated that cl mag3 correlated reasonably well (r = 0.83, P < 0.0001) with erpf obtained from the cl pah value. The volume of distribution and elimination of 99mTc-MAG3 decreased during renal failure. Although there was minimal binding of 99mTc-MAG3 to erythrocytes, it was significantly (P = 0.0008) lower during renal failure. Protein binding was not significantly different during renal failure. All dogs had signs of nausea and emesis at variable times after injection of 99mTc-MAG3. Determination of cl mag3 after a single injection provides an adequate means to rapidly assess erpf in dogs. The technique could easily be performed in dogs with renal disease, thus providing valuable information regarding progression of naturally acquired renal failure.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate efficacy and nephrotoxicity of amphotericin B lipid complex used for treatment of dogs with naturally developing blastomycosis.

Design

Prospective clinical trial.

Animals

11 dogs with blastomycosis.

Procedure

All dogs were treated with an amphotericin B lipid complex. Two dogs received a cumulative dose of 8 mg/kg of body weight, 1 received a cumulative dose of 10 mg/kg, and 8 received a cumulative dose of 12 mg/kg.

Results

The 2 dogs that received a cumulative dose of 8 mg/kg and 1 of the dogs that received a cumulative dose of 12 mg/kg had a relapse of blastomycosis within 30 days after treatment. Seven of the remaining 8 dogs were clinically free of blastomycosis 6 months after treatment. One dog died of an unrelated cause 5.5 months after treatment, but did not have clinical signs of blastomycosis at the time of death. There were not any adverse clinical effects attributable to drug administration in any of the dogs in this study, and none of the dogs developed clinical signs of renal disease or failure.

Clinical Implications

Amphotericin B lipid complex was a safe and effective treatment for blastomycosis in these dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:2073–2075)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association