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A 10-year-old 4.5-kg (9.9-lb) castrated male Siamese cat was referred to the Oradell Animal Hospital because of suspected pericardial and pleural effusions. The cat had been examined immediately prior to the hospital visit by the referring veterinarian because of a decline in appetite of 1 week's duration and a decline in activity level during the preceding 24 hours. The effusions were detected via thoracic radiography. The cat was kept indoors and fed a diet of ground beef and a dry formulation of commercial cat food.

At the hospital, the cat was recumbent and had signs of depression; its body condition

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate signalment, clinical signs, and prognosis associated with high-grade second- or thirddegree atrioventricular block (AVB) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—124 dogs.

Procedures—Data were gathered from ECGs, veterinarian questionnaires, echocardiograms, and radiographs submitted for review; compared with data from a large control group; and examined for association between variables and duration of survival. A new classification system for AVB was evaluated.

Results—Afghan, Catahoula Leopard Dog, Chow Chow, Cocker Spaniel, German Wirehaired Pointer, and Labrador Retriever breeds were predisposed to highgrade second- or third-degree AVB. Heavier, older, and sexually intact female dogs were overrepresented in the study group. Weakness, lethargy, exercise intolerance, and syncope were the most common clinical signs. The presence of clinical signs was not associated with duration of survival. Dogs with high-grade second-degree AVB had a duration of survival similar to that of dogs with third-degree AVB. Dogs with highgrade second- or third-degree AVB were at high risk for sudden death in the first 6 months after diagnosis. High ventricular escape rhythm rate and narrow escape-complex QRS width were negatively associated with duration of survival. Pacemaker implantation had a significant positive association with survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pacemaker implantation should be strongly considered in all dogs with high-grade second- or third-degree AVB regardless of whether clinical signs are evident. If medical treatment is warranted, vagolytic medications may be the best choice. A new classification system for AVB may merit further investigation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association