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Objective—To determine duration of administration, complications, and frequency of aortic thromboembolism associated with administration of low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—57 cats treated with dalteparin.

Procedure—Data were recorded from the medical records of cats treated with dalteparin, and owners were contacted by telephone for information regarding ease of administration and possible adverse effects.

Results—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners. Median dose was 99 U/kg (45 U/lb) once or twice daily. Bleeding complications were infrequent. Of 43 cats with cardiomyopathy that received owner-administered dalteparin for a median follow-up time of 172 days, 8 cats developed documented or possible arterial thromboembolism.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners and was well tolerated by cats. Whether dalteparin administration can reduce the frequency or severity of arterial thromboembolism is not yet known. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1237–1241)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine current population characteristics of, clinical findings in, and survival times for cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—260 cats with HCM.

Procedure—Information was obtained from the medical records. Cats were classified into 1 of 4 clinical groups (congestive heart failure [CHF] group, arterial thromboembolism [ATE] group, syncope group, or cats without clinical signs [subclinical group]) on the basis of the primary clinical signs at the initial examination.

Results—120 cats were classified in the CHF group, 43 in the ATE group, 10 in the syncope group, and 87 in the subclinical group. Antecedent events that may have precipitated CHF included IV fluid administration, anesthesia, surgery, and recent corticosteroid administration. Median survival time was 709 days (range, 2 to 4,418 days) for cats that survived > 24 hours. Cats in the subclinical group lived the longest (median survival time, 1,129 days; range, 2 to 3,778 days), followed by cats in the syncope group (654 days; range, 28 to 1,505 days), cats in the CHF group (563 days; range, 2 to 4,418 days), and cats in the ATE group (184 days; range, 2 to 2,278 days). Causes of death included ATE (n = 56), CHF (49), sudden death (13), and noncardiac causes (27). In univariate analyses, survival time was negatively correlated with left atrial size, age, right ventricular enlargement, and thoracentesis. Cats with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve lived longer than cats without this echocardiographic finding. In multivariate analyses, only age and left atrial size remained significant predictors of survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although overall survival time for cats with HCM was similar to earlier reports, survival times for cats with CHF or ATE were longer than previously reported. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:202–207)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate risk of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection between birth and 9 months of age for dairy replacement heifers raised under typical dry-lot management conditions.

Design—Longitudinal observational study.

Animals—446 calves.

Procedure—Calves were randomly selected from 2 dairies that used killed and modified-live BVDV vaccines. Repeated serologic and BVDV polymerase chain reaction assays were used to estimate risk of BVDV infection in calves of various ages (1 to 60 days; 61 to 100 days; 101 days to 9 months) and to estimate overall infection rate by 9 months of age.

Results—Risk of BVDV infection increased with age (maximum risk, 150 to 260 days). Proportion of calves infected with BVDV by 9 months of age was higher for dairy A (0.665), compared with dairy B (0.357). Percentage infected with BVDV type I did not differ between dairy A (18.2%) and dairy B (15.2%), whereas percentage infected with BVDV type II for dairy A (50%) was twice that for dairy B (21%). Between 210 and 220 days of age, infection with BVDV regardless of type was > 1.3%/d on dairy A and 0.5%/d on dairy B.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under drylot conditions, a considerable amount of BVDV infection may occur before 9 months of age. Risk of infection increases with age. Although dairies may appear to have similar management practices, there can be considerably different risks of BVDV infection among dairies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1426–1431)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To describe the historical, clinical, and echocardiographic findings in Dalmatians with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).


Retrospective case series.

Sample Population

9 Dalmatians with a diagnosis of DCM and congestive heart failure (CHF), 9 Doberman Pinschers with DCM and CHF, and 9 dogs of other breeds with DCM and CHF.


Disease history; signalment; physical, radiographic, and echocardiographic examination findings; treatment; and outcome from medical records were analyzed.


All Dalmatians were male, with a mean age of 6.8 years. Eight dogs had been fed a commercially available low-protein diet formulated for the prevention of urate uroliths. All dogs had clinical signs consistent with left-sided CHF and had marked left ventricular systolic dysfunction and severe left ventricular dilatation, although arrhythmias were not an important finding in this series of dogs. Median duration of survival was 10 months.

Clinical Implications

The DCM syndrome in Dalmatians has some qualities that are distinct from DCM in other breeds of dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1592–1596)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association