Objective—To evaluate risk of bovine viral diarrhea
virus (BVDV) infection between birth and 9 months of
age for dairy replacement heifers raised under typical
dry-lot management conditions.
Design—Longitudinal observational study.
Procedure—Calves were randomly selected from
2 dairies that used killed and modified-live BVDV
vaccines. Repeated serologic and BVDV polymerase
chain reaction assays were used to estimate
risk of BVDV infection in calves of various
ages (1 to 60 days; 61 to 100 days; 101 days to 9
months) and to estimate overall infection rate by 9
months of age.
Results—Risk of BVDV infection increased with age
(maximum risk, 150 to 260 days). Proportion of calves
infected with BVDV by 9 months of age was higher for
dairy A (0.665), compared with dairy B (0.357).
Percentage infected with BVDV type I did not differ
between dairy A (18.2%) and dairy B (15.2%), whereas
percentage infected with BVDV type II for dairy A
(50%) was twice that for dairy B (21%). Between 210
and 220 days of age, infection with BVDV regardless of
type was > 1.3%/d on dairy A and 0.5%/d on dairy B.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Under drylot
conditions, a considerable amount of BVDV
infection may occur before 9 months of age. Risk
of infection increases with age. Although dairies
may appear to have similar management practices,
there can be considerably different risks of BVDV
infection among dairies. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To determine current population characteristics
of, clinical findings in, and survival times for
cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Animals—260 cats with HCM.
Procedure—Information was obtained from the medical
records. Cats were classified into 1 of 4 clinical
groups (congestive heart failure [CHF] group, arterial
thromboembolism [ATE] group, syncope group, or
cats without clinical signs [subclinical group]) on the
basis of the primary clinical signs at the initial examination.
Results—120 cats were classified in the CHF group,
43 in the ATE group, 10 in the syncope group, and 87
in the subclinical group. Antecedent events that may
have precipitated CHF included IV fluid administration,
anesthesia, surgery, and recent corticosteroid
administration. Median survival time was 709 days
(range, 2 to 4,418 days) for cats that survived > 24
hours. Cats in the subclinical group lived the longest
(median survival time, 1,129 days; range, 2 to 3,778
days), followed by cats in the syncope group (654
days; range, 28 to 1,505 days), cats in the CHF group
(563 days; range, 2 to 4,418 days), and cats in the ATE
group (184 days; range, 2 to 2,278 days). Causes of
death included ATE (n = 56), CHF (49), sudden death
(13), and noncardiac causes (27). In univariate analyses,
survival time was negatively correlated with left
atrial size, age, right ventricular enlargement, and thoracentesis.
Cats with systolic anterior motion of the
mitral valve lived longer than cats without this
echocardiographic finding. In multivariate analyses,
only age and left atrial size remained significant predictors
of survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
overall survival time for cats with HCM was similar to
earlier reports, survival times for cats with CHF or
ATE were longer than previously reported. (J Am Vet
Med Assoc 2002;220:202–207)
Objective—To determine duration of administration,
complications, and frequency of aortic thromboembolism
associated with administration of low molecular
weight heparin (dalteparin) in cats.
Animals—57 cats treated with dalteparin.
Procedure—Data were recorded from the medical
records of cats treated with dalteparin, and owners
were contacted by telephone for information regarding
ease of administration and possible adverse
Results—Dalteparin was easily administered by owners.
Median dose was 99 U/kg (45 U/lb) once or twice
daily. Bleeding complications were infrequent. Of 43
cats with cardiomyopathy that received owner-administered
dalteparin for a median follow-up time of 172
days, 8 cats developed documented or possible arterial
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dalteparin
was easily administered by owners and was well tolerated
by cats. Whether dalteparin administration can
reduce the frequency or severity of arterial thromboembolism
is not yet known. (J Am Vet Med Assoc