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  • Author or Editor: Donald L. Noah x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of selected intestinal parasites in pet dogs and recently apprehended free-roaming (AFR) shelter dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare those prevalences between the 2 groups.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

SAMPLE Convenience samples of fecal specimens from owned pet dogs from the Phoenix metropolitan area (n = 175) and free-roaming dogs apprehended and admitted to Maricopa County Animal Care and Control and Arizona Humane Society facilities from November 2014 through March 2015 (188).

PROCEDURES Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs; for AFR shelter dogs, specimens were collected within 72 hours after facility admission. Standard centrifugal flotation tests and an ELISA were performed to detect 5 common intestinal parasites (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, Giardia spp, and Cystoisospora spp). Group comparisons were performed by means of the χ2 test and Rogan-Gladen prevalence estimate.

RESULTS At least 1 of the 5 evaluated parasites was detected in 85 (45.2%) fecal specimens from AFR shelter dogs and 24 (13.7%) specimens from owned pet dogs. This prevalence differed significantly between the groups. Notably, the prevalence of Giardia spp in AFR shelter dogs (n = 76 [40.4%]) was higher than previously reported in the United States.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of the evaluated intestinal parasites, particularly of Giardia spp, in AFR shelter dogs was higher than expected. This information is important for veterinarians, animal shelter personnel, pet owners, human health-care providers, and public health officials to consider when devising effective interventions and risk communication efforts against potential zoonotic threats, particularly those relevant to the Phoenix metropolitan area.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To determine serologic and epidemiologic characteristics of an occupational group potentially at risk for Bartonella sp infection.

Design

Epidemiologic survey.

Sample Population

351 veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and other individuals attending a veterinary conference in Ohio.

Procedure

A serum sample was obtained from each individual and tested for antibodies to Bartonella henselae or B quintana. A 24-question survey also was administered regarding demographic, occupational, and exposure information.

Results

25 (7.1 %) individuals were seropositive for B henselae or B quintana. Forty-seven, of whom 5 were seropositive, reported a history of illness consistent with cat-scratch disease and 18, of whom 3 were seropositive, reported a previous diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. Of the variables analyzed, only years of experience with cats was correlated with seropositivity.

Clinical Implications

The overall seroprevalence for 2 species of Bartonella in this occupational group was only slightly higher than that reported from other surveys. Seroprevalences among veterinarians, veterinary technicians, hospital staff, and others were essentially identical. Small sample groups, high percentage of cat ownership among participants, unknown duration of seropositivity, and unknown prevalence of infection among cats were potential confounders. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:342–344

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

In 1995, 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico reported 7,877 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 4 cases in human beings to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 92% (7,247 cases) were wild animals, whereas 8% (630 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 4.2% from that of 1994 (8,230 cases). Most of the decline was the result of 17.1% fewer reported cases of rabies in raccoons in areas of the Northeast, where rabies is now enzootic rather than epizootic. Exceptions to this decline were detected in states where the virus has only recently entered raccoon populations or where ongoing epizootics persist. States experiencing increasing epizootic activity associated with this variant include Maine (3 cases in 1993 to 101 cases in 1995), North Carolina (9 cases in 1990 to 466 cases in 1995), Rhode Island (1 case in 1993 to 324 cases in 1995), and Vermont (45 cases in 1993 to 179 cases in 1995). The raccoon variant of the rabies virus is now present in Alabama, Pennsylvania, Vermont, West Virginia, and all Atlantic Seaboard states from Florida to Maine. In Ohio, this variant, last detected in 1992 as a single case, was again detected in 1996. Epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central Texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern Texas attributable to canine variants continue, with this state reporting 137 rabid foxes, 55 rabid dogs, and 80 of the 83 cases in coyotes during 1995. The number of rabid bats (787) increased by almost 25%, with cases reported by 47 of the 48 contiguous states. Nationally, reported cases of rabies in cattle (136) and cats (288) increased by 22.5 and 7.9%, respectively, whereas cases in dogs (146) decreased by 4.6%. Cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. The cases of rabies reported in human beings were all caused by viral variants associated with bats. Eighteen states and Puerto Rico reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1995, compared with 28 states and the District of Columbia in 1994. Hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1995.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association