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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To characterize the pathogenic potential of a unique Borrelia isolate obtained from a dog from Florida (FCB isolate).

Design

Prospective experimental infection.

Animals

32 preweanling Swiss Webster mice and 12 adult male Hartley guinea pigs were injected intraperitoneally with 105 spirochetes.

Procedure

Mice were used as controls and blood recipients, and at 3- to 4-day intervals, 1 control mouse and 2 infected mice were necropsied, tissues were cultured, and a recipient mouse was inoculated with blood. Guinea pigs were randomized to 4 groups and inoculated intradermally with 100, 102, 103, or 104 spirochetes. For 48 days, clinical, hematologic, serologic, and microbiologic tests were performed on them, after which they were necropsied.

Results

In mice, spirochetemia was detectable between postinoculation days (PID) 3 and 13, and seroreactivity to homologous antigen was detectable during PID 10 through 31. Compared with control mice, infected mouse spleens were 2 to 3 times larger. Histologic lesions included lymphoid hyperplasia, neutrophilic panniculitis, epicarditis, and myocarditis, with intralesional spirochetes detected from PID 3 through 6. During PID 10 through 31, nonsuppurative epicarditis developed. Signs of illness and hematologic abnormalities were not observed in guinea pigs, despite isolating spirochetes from blood during PID 7 to 27. When necropsied on PID 48, histologic lesions included lymphoid hyperplasia and lymphocytic plasmacytic epicarditis.

Conclusions

The FCB isolate causes spirochetemia, lymphoid hyperplasia, dermatitis, and myocardial injury in Swiss Webster mice and can be transmitted by blood inoculation. In Hartley guinea pigs, the isolate causes spirochetemia, lymphoid hyperplasia, and epicarditis. Documentation of disease in mice, guinea pigs, and, presumably, dogs raises the level of concern that the FCB isolate might be pathogenic for man and other animal species. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:505–511)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed through an endotracheal tube in 34 specific-pathogen-free cats to determine expected values for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytologic analysis, using this method of collection. Saline solution for lavage was instilled in 3 separate aliquots at a volume of 5 ml/kg of body weight each. Analysis of sequential aliquots was performed to investigate the differences in cell counts among the 3 fractions. The effect of combining aliquots, including or omitting the first fraction, was evaluated to determine whether all aliquots could be combined for analysis without substantially affecting results.

The total number of nucleated cells retrieved from each cat ranged from 0.9 to 31.1 × 106. Most of these cells were macrophages (78 ± 15%, mean ± sd) and eosinophils (16 ± 14%). The first aliquot had the greatest number of epithelial cells, and the lowest total nucleated cell count and relative and absolute eosinophil counts. Differences among aliquots also were identified for relative and absolute macrophage counts, relative and absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte count. Statistically significant differences were found for many of the cell counts when values from the combination of the second and third aliquots were compared with values from the combination of all 3 aliquots. Magnitude of the differences was small, and these differences were not believed to be of practical consequence.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To determine whether it was possible to retrieve organisms, by means of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), from cats inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii.

Design

Experimental study.

Animals

27 cats. Sixteen of the 27 were experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

Procedure

All cats were inoculated with T gondii tachyzoites. Cats were grouped on the basis of feline immunodeficiency virus status and route (IV or intra-arterial) and number of tachyzoites administered. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed by means of a standard technique. Lavage fluid was evaluated cytologically for tachyzoites.

Results

Clinical signs of toxoplasmosis varied widely among individual cats, but were generally most pronounced in group-1 and -2 cats (n = 5 each) and less pronounced in group-3 (n = 5) cats. Group-4 and -5 cats (n = 6 each) did not have clinical signs of toxoplasmosis. In 14 of the 15 cats in groups 1, 2, and 3, tachyzoites were detected in BAL flu id collected 7 days after inoculation. Tachyzoites were detected 14 days after inoculation in the single cat without tachyzoites 7 days after inoculation. A necropsy was performed on 9 of these cats, and tachyzoites were identified histologically in 4 of the 9. Tachyzoites were not detected in BAL fluid collected 3 days (n = 6) or 7 days (n = 6) after inoculation from the 12 cats in groups 4 and 5. Tachyzoites were not identified histologically in any of these 12 cats.

Clinical Implications

BAL may be useful in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Particularly in cats with signs of pulmonary involvement. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:648–650

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association