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  • Author or Editor: Donald G. Arthur x
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Summary

The relationship between bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) infection and thrombocytopenia was studied in 18 veal calves experimentally infected with bvdv. All calves were free of bvdv, and 13 calves were free of serum neutralizing antibodies to bvdv before virus inoculation. Calves were inoculated at approximately 10 days of age, and platelet counts were monitored over a period of several weeks. Ten additional calves housed in close proximity were kept as uninoculated controls. A profound decrease in platelet counts by 3 to 11 days after inoculation was seen in all calves that had neutralizing antibody titers < 1:32 before infection. Severe thrombocytopenia (<5,000 platelets/μl) was seen in 12 calves, 11 of which also developed hemorrhages. Necropsy findings in 3 severely thrombocytopenic calves that died included multiple hemorrhages throughout the body. Calves that recovered had increased platelet counts, and in most instances, a corresponding increase in neutralizing antibody titers to bvdv. At 11 days after inoculation, bvdv was detected on platelets by use of immunofluorescence, but evidence of surface-bound immunoglobulin was not found. The results suggest that a nonimmunoglobulin-mediated method of platelet destruction or sequestration develops as a sequela to bvdv infection.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Inclusion of lactose in the diets of chickens has been determined to reduce cecal colonization with Salmonella typhimurium. We hypothesized, therefore, that dietary lactose may be a practical means for reducing the prevalence of Salmonella contamination of chicken products. Because some strains of Salmonella are atypical and ferment lactose, we investigated the effects of dietary lactose on cecal colonization with lactose-fermenting S typhimurium. Broiler chicks were inoculated intracloacally with Lac+ S typhimurium selected for resistance to novobiocin and rifampicin. The chicks also were inoculated orally with certain anaerobes that do not effectively inhibit colonization by S typhimurium, but do appear essential for lactose mediated inhibition of cecal colonization. Control chicks were not given dietary lactose, and chicks in the experimental group were fed a diet containing 7% lactose. Enumeration of Lac+ S typhimurium in cecal contents revealed dietary lactose to be effective at controlling this organism. Control was correlated with changes in cecal pH and increases in undissociated volatile fatty acids, especially propionic acid.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research