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  • Author or Editor: Donald F. Smith x
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SUMMARY

Renal electrolyte and net acid excretion were characterized during generation and maintenance of hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis in a ruminant model. Two phases of renal response with regard to sodium and net acid excretion were documented. An initial decrease in net acid excretion was attributable to increase in bicarbonate excretion with associated increase in sodium excretion. As the metabolic disturbance became more advanced, a second phase of renal excretion was observed in which sodium and bicarbonate excretion were markedly decreased, leading to increase in net acid excretion and development of aciduria. Throughout the metabolic disturbance, chloride excretion was markedly decreased; potassium excretion also decreased. These changes were accompanied by increase in plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations. There was apparent failure to concentrate the urine optimally during the course of the metabolic disturbance, despite increasing plasma concentration of antidiuretic hormone.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis accompanied by hypokalemia and hyponatremia was induced experimentally in 7 adult sheep by diversion (loss) of gastric contents through an Ivan and Johnston cannula placed in the cranial part of the duodenum just distal to the pylorus. Cannula placement was easily accomplished, and cannulae were tolerated well by the sheep. Volume of effluent produced during the 60- to 120-hour period of diversion ranged from 7.7 to 14.9 L and tended to be greatest during the first 24 hours. All sheep became dehydrated, with mean pcv and plasma total protein concentration increases of 94.2 and 61.7%, respectively. Plasma chloride concentration decreased in linear fashion from a prediversion mean of 113 mEq/L (range, 111 to 117 mEq/L) to an end-point mean of 54 mEq/L (range, 45 to 65 mEq/L). Plasma sodium and potassium concentrations also decreased, though potassium concentration increased terminally. There were rapid increases in arterial blood pH and bicarbonate and base excess concentrations during the first 48 hours after diversion. However, during the final stages of diversion, sheep developed superimposed metabolic acidosis with increased plasma lactate concentration and high anion gap.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

The medical records of 66 calves with atresia coli were reviewed; 64 calves were examined at the New York State College of Veterniary Medicine, and 2 calves were examined at the New Bolton Center. In each case, the site of the atresia was within the spiral loop of the ascending colon. In 1 of these calves, a segment of jejunum was also atretic. Absence of feces, progressive weakness, and abdominal distension were the most common clinical signs observed. Other congenital abnormalities were detected in 12 (18%) of 66 calves.

Of the 66 calves examined, 5 were euthanatized or died on admission, and 61 had an exploratory celiotomy performed. Eight calves were euthanatized or died during the surgery. In the remaining 53 calves, surgical treatment consisted of enterotomy followed by meconium evacuation, resection of the proximal blind end (in 30 calves), and restoration of intestinal continuity. Restoration of intestinal continuity was done either by side-to-side anastomosis of the proximal to distal blind ends (5 calves), or by side-to-side or end-to-side anastomosis of the proximal blind end to the descending colon (48 calves). Of the 66 calves seen, 27 (41 %) were discharged from the hospital, and 11 of these reached reproductive age (11 calves were lost to follow-up before they were 2 years old). From the 11 calves reaching reproductive age, 33 calves were born, one of which may have had atresia coli. The owners should anticipate that long-term survivors likely will have loose feces and normal offspring, but may not grow as well as otherwise expected.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

A mucosal lesion was created in the center of each test sinus of 6 mature, healthy, nonlactating Holstein cows by resecting a circumferential band of mucosa. Each lesion was then treated by implantation of strip grafts of autogenous oral mucosa, temporary silastic tube implant, or a combination of strip grafts and temporary silastic tube implant. All teats were evaluated for patency 6 weeks after treatment, and tube implants were removed through a second thelotomy incision. All teats were reevaluated for gross and radiographic patency 12 weeks after treatment, and teats were collected for histologic evaluation of lesions. All 4 teats treated with grafts only were obstructed at 6 and 12 weeks after treatment. Incomplete coverage of the lesion with mucosa was observed in all 4 teats. The major source of obstruction was proliferation of epithelium and keratin into the lumen. All 8 teats treated with temporary silastic tube implants alone were patent at 6 weeks after treatment, but were obstructed at 12 weeks after treatment. Foci of mucosa at the lesion site were detected in only 2 of the 8 teats. Obstruction resulted from proliferation of granulation tissue into the lumen. All 12 teats treated with grafts and a temporary tube implant were patent at 6 weeks after treatment and 11 of 12 were patent at 12 weeks after treatment, although marked luminal narrowing was evident in 9 of 11 teats. Partial to complete coverage of the lesion with mucosa was seen in all teats. Proliferative granulation tissue, epithelium, and keratin contributed to luminal narrowing in 10 of 11 patent teats. Bacteriologic culture of quarters from 6 of the 11 teats patent at the final evaluation yielded pathogens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research