OBJECTIVE To determine clinical effects of CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 15 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (5 dogs/group) and received a single CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, or translaminar epidural injection of methylprednisolone acetate (0.1 mg/kg). Contrast medium was injected prior to injection of methylprednisolone to verify needle placement. Neurologic examinations were performed 1, 3, 7, and 10 days after the injection. In dogs with neurologic abnormalities, a final neurologic examination was performed 24 days after the procedure.
RESULTS Methylprednisolone injections were successfully performed in 14 of the 15 dogs. In 1 dog, vascular puncture occurred, and the methylprednisolone injection was not performed. No major or minor complications were identified during or immediately after the procedure, other than mild transient hyperthermia. During follow-up neurologic examinations, no motor, sensory, or postural deficits were identified, other than mild alterations in the patellar, withdrawal, cranial tibial, and perineal reflexes in some dogs. Overall, altered reflexes were observed in 11 of the 14 dogs, during 27 of 65 neurologic examinations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that CT-guided lumbosacral facet joint, transforaminal epidural, and translaminar epidural injections of methylprednisolone acetate were associated with few complications in healthy dogs. However, the number of dogs evaluated was small, and additional studies are needed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of these procedures.
Objective—To evaluate fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic diarrhea, to identify cutoff values for fecal calprotectin concentrations for use in differentiating dogs with chronic diarrhea and a canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) < 12 from dogs with chronic diarrhea and a CCECAI ≥ 12, and to evaluate the association between histologic evidence of intestinal mucosal changes and fecal calprotectin concentrations in dogs with chronic diarrhea.
Sample—Fecal samples from 96 adult dogs (27 dogs with chronic diarrhea and 69 healthy control dogs).
Procedures—Severity of clinical signs was evaluated on the basis of the CCECAI scoring system. Endoscopy was performed in all dogs with chronic diarrhea, and mucosal biopsy specimens were evaluated histologically. Fecal calprotectin concentration was quantified via radioimmunoassay.
Results—Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea than in healthy control dogs. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were also significantly higher in dogs with a CCECAI ≥ 12, compared with concentrations for dogs with a CCECAI between 4 and 11. Fecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with chronic diarrhea associated with histologic lesions, compared with concentrations in control dogs, and were significantly correlated with the severity of histologic intestinal lesions. Among dogs with chronic diarrhea, the best cutoff fecal calprotectin concentration for predicting a CCECAI ≥ 12 was 48.9 μg/g (sensitivity, 53.3%; specificity, 91.7%).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fecal calprotectin may be a useful biomarker in dogs with chronic diarrhea, especially dogs with histologic lesions.