Objective—To obtain ultrasonographic reference values for the thickness of the pancreas and the diameter of the pancreatic duct in clinically normal dogs.
Animals—242 adult dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.
Procedures—The maximum pancreatic thickness and the diameter of the pancreatic duct were recorded ultrasonographically at the level of the left lobe, body, and right lobe of the pancreas.
Results—Mean ± SD pancreatic thickness measurements were as follows: left lobe, 6.5 ± 1.7 mm (n = 214); body, 6.3 ± 1.6 mm (155); and right lobe, 8.1 ± 1.8 mm (239). The mean pancreatic duct diameter was 0.6 ± 0.2 mm (n = 42) in the left lobe and 0.7 ± 0.2 mm (213) in the right lobe. The right pancreatic duct was visible in 213/242 (88.0%) dogs, and the left pancreatic duct was visible in 41/242 (16.9%) dogs. However, the body was visible in only 16/242 (6.6%) dogs. Pancreatic thickness and diameter of the pancreatic duct significantly increased with body weight in all lobes, but age was not correlated with the measurements.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonographic reference values for the pancreas and pancreatic duct of dogs were determined. Results of this study indicated that the pancreatic duct was visible, especially in the right lobe of the pancreas. These values may be useful for the assessment of pancreatic abnormalities, such as chronic pancreatitis and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency.
OBJECTIVE To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the urinary bladder incision site in dogs that underwent cystotomy for treatment of urolithiasis.
DESIGN Prospective, longitudinal study.
ANIMALS 18 client-owned dogs.
PROCEDURES Dogs underwent urinary bladder ultrasonography at baseline (≤ 1 day before surgery) and at 1 day and approximately 2, 6, and 12 weeks after cystotomy for urocystolith removal. A baseline ratio between ventral (cystotomy site) and corresponding dorsal midline wall thickness was calculated and used to account for measurement variations attributable to bladder distension at subsequent visits. Patient signalment, weight, medications administered, urocystolith composition, and culture results were recorded. Clinical signs, reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci, and suture visualization were recorded at follow-up examinations. Variables were evaluated for association with cystotomy site thickening and resolution of thickening.
RESULTS Median wall thickness at the ventral aspect of the bladder was significantly greater than that of the corresponding dorsal aspect at baseline. Cystotomy site thickening peaked 1 day after surgery and decreased at subsequent visits in a linear manner. Twelve weeks after surgery, 5 of 10 clinically normal dogs evaluated had persistent cystotomy site thickening. Eleven of 18 dogs had reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci within the bladder at some time during the study (median time to first detection, 17 days after surgery).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Persistent cystotomy site thickening can be present up to 3 months after cystotomy for urolithiasis in dogs without lower urinary tract signs. Reoccurrence of hyperechoic foci in the bladder, although subclinical, was detected earlier and at a higher rate than anticipated.
Objective—To ultrasonographically measure the thickness of the individual wall layers of the duodenum, jejunum, and colon of dogs.
Animals—85 dogs with no clinical signs or ultrasonographic evidence of gastrointestinal tract disease.
Procedures—Total wall thickness and thickness of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa were measured ultrasonographically in the duodenum, jejunum, and colon of each dog.
Results—The mucosal layer was the thickest layer of the duodenum and jejunum. There was a significant difference in thickness of the mucosal layer between small and large dogs. Mean ± SD thickness of the mucosal layer of the duodenum for small, medium, and large dogs was 2.4 ± 0.5 mm, 2.6 ± 0.6 mm, and 2.8 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. Mean ± SD thickness of the mucosal layer of the jejunum for small, medium, and large dogs was 1.8 ± 0.4 mm, 2.0 ± 0.4 mm, and 2.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The remaining wall layers of the duodenum and jejunum were similar in thickness, and there were no significant differences among small, medium, and large dogs. All layers contributed equally to the total colonic wall thickness. Mean ± SD thickness of the colonic wall for small, medium, and large dogs was 1.5 ± 0.3 mm, 1.4 ± 0.5 mm, and 1.6 ± 0.4 mm, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Values for thickness of the wall layers of the duodenum, jejunum, and colon of dogs reported here may be useful for assessing gastrointestinal tract diseases primarily targeting a specific wall layer.
To evaluate the effects of ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) resection on gastrointestinal signs, biochemical parameters, and nutritional variables in dogs and cats.
20 dogs and 15 cats that underwent ICJ resection between January 2008 and June 2020.
Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent ICJ resection were reviewed, and clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and nutritional information were obtained. Additional follow-up information was obtained by contacting primary care veterinarians or owners. A subset of dogs (n = 6) and cats (2) were evaluated in the hospital via clinical examination, clinicopathologic testing, nutritional testing, and abdominal ultrasound.
Twenty dogs and 15 cats underwent resection of the ICJ for treatment of a variety of conditions. Ten of 20 dogs (50%) and 11/15 cats (73%) were reported by their owners to have a good long-term outcome based on the lack of long-term gastrointestinal signs or the ability to control gastrointestinal signs with diet and supplements alone. Despite owner-reported good outcomes, long-term diarrhea, weight loss, and muscle loss were common. Of the 6 dogs evaluated in the hospital, 3/6 (50%) had muscle loss, 2/6 (33%) had low taurine concentrations, and 1 dog each had low cobalamin, folate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and ionized calcium. Neither of the 2 cats evaluated in the hospital had nutritional abnormalities identified.
Owners should be informed of the possibility of long-term gastrointestinal clinical signs and the potential need for long-term nutritional management after ICJ resection.
Objective—To determine long-term outcome of dogs
with gallbladder mucocele.
Animals—30 dogs with gallbladder mucocele, including
23 that underwent cholecystectomy.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment,
history, and clinical, ultrasonographic, and
surgical findings. Follow-up information was obtained
for all dogs that survived the perioperative hospitalization
Results—23 dogs had signs of systemic illness; 7 had
no clinical signs. Median values for serum activities of
alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase,
serum total bilirubin concentration, and total WBC
count were significantly higher among dogs with gallbladder
rupture than among dogs without rupture.
Sensitivity of sonography for detection of rupture was
85.7%. Overall perioperative mortality rate for dogs
that underwent cholecystectomy was 21.7%; mortality
rate was not significantly greater for dogs with rupture.
Aerobic bacteria were isolated from the bile or gallbladder
wall in 8.7% of dogs. All 18 dogs discharged
from the hospital had complete resolution of clinical
signs. In dogs that underwent in-hospital reexamination,
serum liver enzyme activities were significantly
decreased, compared with preoperative activities.
Persistent increases in serum activities of 1 or more
liver enzymes were detected in 9 of 12 dogs; 6 of 12
dogs had persistent abnormalities in hepatic
echogenicity. Mean follow-up period was 13.9 months.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that cholecystectomy is an effective treatment
for gallbladder mucocele. Although perioperative mortality
rate is high, prognosis after discharge from the
hospital is excellent. Rupture of the gallbladder warrants
emergency surgical intervention but does not
preclude a positive outcome. (J Am Vet Med Assoc