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  • Author or Editor: Dominic J. Marino x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe a thermographic imaging protocol, identify normal thermographic patterns (ie, color map reflecting the skin temperature distribution) for various regions of interest (ROIs) of dog limbs, and evaluate effects of clipping the coat on thermographic patterns and limb temperature in healthy dogs.

Animals—10 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Each dog was thermographically evaluated in the same room (ambient temperature, 21°C) via ROIs that included cranial and caudal views of the body, full lateral body views, full views of the limbs, and views of various limb regions. After initial imaging, the coat was clipped on the forelimbs and hind limbs only. Each dog was then evaluated 15 and 60 minutes and 24 hours after clipping by use of the same protocol.

Results—For each ROI within a category (intact coat and each time point after clipping), mean temperatures were similar among the 10 dogs. Pairwise comparisons for 15 and 60 minutes and 24 hours established patterns of temperature stabilization among the 3 time points. Temperatures did not differ significantly between the left and right limbs. There was a mean success rate of 75% for use of image pattern analysis for recognition of similar thermographic patterns in the forelimbs and hind limbs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Thermography can be a viable, noninvasive imaging modality that provides consistent images with reproducible thermal patterns in ROIs examined in healthy dogs. Although the coat had a predictable influence to decrease the mean temperature, thermal patterns remained fairly consistent after the coat was clipped.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Medical records of 117 dogs with digit masses were reviewed. Of 124 digit masses, 76 (61%) were malignant neoplasms, 25 (20%) were benign neoplasms, and 23 (19%) were pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of 29 digits with radiographic evidence of bone lysis, 24 (83%) were affected by malignant masses, whereas only 5 of 29 (17%) digits with radiographic evidence of bone lysis were affected by benign or pyogranulomatous masses. Only 1 of 19 (5%) dogs with melanoma had radiographic evidence of lysis, but 20 of 25 (80%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma had radiographic evidence of bone lysis. Thoracic radiographs of 95 dogs were available. Six of 19 (32%) dogs with melanoma had radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis, whereas 3 of 24 (13%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma had radiographic evidence of pulmonary metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Twenty-nine digit neoplasms were squamous cell carcinoma, and 19 of 29 (66%) arose from the subungual epithelium. Of 19 dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating from the subungual epithelium, 18 (95%) survived for at least 1 year, whereas only 6 of 10 (60%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating in other parts of the digit survived for at least 1 year. Furthermore, of 19 dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating from the subungual epithelium, 14 (74%) survived at least 2 years, whereas only 4 of 9 (44%) dogs with squamous cell carcinoma originating in other parts of the digit survived for 2 years. Dogs with melanoma of the digits had a median survival time of 12 months, with 10 of 24 (42%) alive at 1 year and 3 of 23 (13%) alive at 2 years. Dogs with mast cell tumor of the digits had a median survival time of 20 months, with 7 of 8 (88%) dogs alive at 1 year and 4 of 8 (50%) alive at 2 years.

Analysis of the results of the study reported here indicated that the prevalence of neoplasms in dogs with digit masses was high. Malignant neoplasms were more prevalent than benign neoplasms, with the most commonly identified types being squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. Radiographic evidence of bone lysis was seen in dogs with all types of masses but was more commonly associated with squamous cell carcinoma than with melanoma. Dogs with melanoma of the digit had a higher prevalence of pulmonary metastasis and a poorer prognosis than dogs with squamous cell carcinoma.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To objectively describe morphometric features of the craniocervical junction region of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCSs) and non-CKCS dogs with suspected Chiari-like malformation (CLM) and identify associations between these features and the presence of other malformations in this region.

Animals—216 CKCSs and 58 non-CKCS dogs.

Procedures—Magnetic resonance and computed tomographic images of the head and craniocervical junction region of patients evaluated because of suspected CLM were assessed for cerebellar compression (CC), ventral spinal cord compression at the C1–C2 articulation (medullary kinking), and dorsal spinal cord compression at the C1–C2 articulation (dorsal compression). A compression index was calculated for each of these 3 locations in each dog. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether breed (CKCS vs non-CKCS) and compression index values were associated with the presence of other craniocervical junction abnormalities.

Results—All 274 dogs had CC; medullary kinking was identified in 187 (68.2%) and dorsal compression was identified in 104 (38.0%). Atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO) was identified in 76 (27.7%) dogs. Breed of dog (CKCS vs non-CKCS) and value of CC index were the only significant predictors of AOO. The CKCSs had an almost 5-fold decrease in risk of AOO, compared with the non-CKCS dogs, and the risk of AOO nearly doubled for every 10% increase in CC index.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The anatomic abnormality responsible for CC was AOO in a substantial percentage of dogs suspected to have CLM. The CC index value may be used to help differentiate subtypes of craniocervical junction abnormalities in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the usefulness of medical infrared thermal imaging (MITI) as a screening tool for hyperthyroidism in cats, evaluate the need for hair clipping over the ventral aspect of the neck to achieve optimal images, and determine whether there is a change in thermal patterns at 1 and 3 months after radioactive sodium iodide I 131 treatment.

ANIMALS 17 cats with and 12 control cats without hyperthyroidism.

PROCEDURES All cats underwent MITI first with the hair present and then after the hair was clipped. Each cat with hyperthyroidism was subsequently appropriately treated SC with radioiodide; reevaluations, including MITI before and after hair clipping and measurement of serum thyroxine concentration, were performed 1 and 3 months after treatment.

RESULTS The MITI had 80.5% and 87.5% accuracy in differentiating hyperthyroid cats from clinically normal cats before and after the hair over the ventral aspect of the neck was clipped. Among cats with an initial serum thyroxine concentration > 4.0 μg/dL, the success rate for MITI-detected response to radioiodide treatment at the 1-month reevaluation was 92.86% in unshaved cats and 85.71% in shaved cats. The success rate for MITI-detected response to radioiodide treatment at the 3-month reevaluation was 100% in unshaved and shaved cats.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that MITI was successful in differentiating between hyperthyroid cats and clinically normal cats and identifying patients with thyroxine concentration within reference interval after radioactive sodium iodide I 131 treatment.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research