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  • Author or Editor: Dixie F. Mollenkopf x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether brachycephalic dogs were at greater risk of anesthesia-related complications than nonbrachycephalic dogs and identify other risk factors for such complications.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 223 client-owned brachycephalic dogs undergoing general anesthesia for routine surgery or diagnostic imaging during 2012 and 223 nonbrachycephalic client-owned dogs matched by surgical procedure and other characteristics.

PROCEDURES Data were obtained from the medical records regarding dog signalment, clinical signs, anesthetic variables, surgery characteristics, and complications noted during or following anesthesia (prior to discharge from the hospital). Risk of complications was compared between brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic dogs, controlling for other factors.

RESULTS Perianesthetic (intra-anesthetic and postanesthetic) complications were recorded for 49.1% (n = 219) of all 446 dogs (49.8% [111/223] of brachycephalic and 48.4% [108/223] of nonbrachycephalic dogs), and postanesthetic complications were recorded for 8.7% (39/446; 13.9% [31/223] of brachycephalic and 3.6% [8/223] of nonbrachycephalic dogs). Factors associated with a higher perianesthetic complication rate included brachycephalic status and longer (vs shorter) duration of anesthesia; the risk of perianesthetic complications decreased with increasing body weight and with orthopedic or radiologic procedures (vs soft tissue procedures). Factors associated with a higher postanesthetic complication rate included brachycephalic status, increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists status, use of ketamine plus a benzodiazepine (vs propofol with or without lidocaine) for anesthetic induction, and invasive (vs noninvasive) procedures.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Controlling for other factors, brachycephalic dogs undergoing routine surgery or imaging were at higher risk of peri- and postanesthetic complications than nonbrachycephalic dogs. Careful monitoring is recommended for brachycephalic dogs in the perianesthetic period.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Once considered to be a simple cause-and-effect relationship with localized impact, the concept of how antimicrobial use drives antimicrobial resistance is now recognized as a complex, transdisciplinary problem on a global scale. While the issue of antimicrobial resistance is often studied and addressed at the antimicrobial-human or antimicrobial-animal treatment interface, the role of the environment in the One Health dynamics of antimicrobial resistance is not as well understood. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including those resistant to carbapenem drugs, are emerging in veterinary clinical environments, on farms, and in natural habitats. These multidrug-resistant bacteria can colonize our livestock and companion animals and are later disseminated into the environment, where they contaminate surface waters and colonize wildlife. From here, the One Health transmission cycle of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is completed as environmental reservoirs can serve as sources of antimicrobial resistance transmission into human or animal healthcare settings. In this review, we utilize a One Health perspective to evaluate how environments become contaminated and, in turn, become reservoirs that can colonize and infect our veterinary species, and how the veterinary field is combating environmental contamination with antimicrobial stewardship regulations and program implementation. The companion Currents in One Health by Parker et al, AJVR, April 2024, addresses the intensive research that justifies this One Health cycle of antimicrobial resistance transmission and emerging techniques that are dissecting the complex interactions at the One Health interface.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Since their commercialization, scientists have known that antimicrobial use kills or inhibits susceptible bacteria while allowing resistant bacteria to survive and expand. Today there is widespread antimicrobial resistance (AMR), even to antimicrobials of last resort such as the carbapenems, which are reserved for use in life-threatening infections. It is often convenient to assign responsibility for this global health crisis to the users and prescribers of antimicrobials. However, we know that animals never treated with antimicrobials carry clinically relevant AMR bacteria and genes. The causal pathway from bacterial susceptibility to resistance is not simple, and dissemination is cyclical rather than linear. Amplification of AMR occurs in healthcare environments and on farms where frequent exposure to antimicrobials selects for resistant bacterial populations. The recipients of antimicrobial therapy release antimicrobial residues, resistant bacteria, and resistance genes in waste products. These are reduced but not removed during wastewater and manure treatment and enter surface waters, soils, recreational parks, wildlife, and fields where animals graze and crops are grown for human and animal consumption. The cycle is complete when a patient carrying AMR bacteria is treated with antimicrobials that amplify the resistant bacterial populations. Reducing the development and spread of AMR requires a One Health approach with the combined commitment of governments, medical and veterinary professionals, agricultural industries, food and feed processors, and environmental scientists. In this review and in the companion Currents in One Health by Ballash et al, JAVMA, April 2024, we highlight just a few of the steps of the complex cyclical causal pathway that leads to the amplification, dissemination, and maintenance of AMR.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-, carbapenem-, and fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the feces of hospitalized horses and on hospital surfaces.

SAMPLE

Fecal and environmental samples were collected from The Ohio State University Galbreath Equine Center (OSUGEC) and a private referral equine hospital in Kentucky (KYEH). Feces were sampled within 24 hours after hospital admission and after 48 hours and 3 to 7 days of hospitalization.

PROCEDURES

Fecal and environmental samples were enriched, and then selective media were inoculated to support growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones.

RESULTS

358 fecal samples were obtained from 143 horses. More samples yielded growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes (AmpC β-lactamase, OR = 4.2; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, OR = 3.2; and fluoroquinolone resistance, OR = 4.0) after 48 hours of hospitalization, versus within 24 hours of hospital admission. Horses hospitalized at KYEH were at greater odds of having fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria (OR = 2.2). At OSUGEC, 82%, 64%, 0%, and 55% of 164 surfaces had Enterobacteriaceae bacteria with AmpC β-lactamase phenotype, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype, resistance to carbapenem, and resistance to fluoroquinolones, respectively; prevalences at KYEH were similarly distributed (52%, 32%, 1%, and 35% of 315 surfaces).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may be isolated from the feces of hospitalized horses and from the hospital environment. Hospitalization may lead to increased fecal carriage of clinically important antimicrobial-resistance genes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Widespread use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine drives the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria in human, animal, and environmental reservoirs. The AVMA and FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine have both taken public positions emphasizing the importance of incorporating antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary clinical settings; however, a model for implementing a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program in veterinary practice is not readily available.

In 2015, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine began developing a veterinary antimicrobial stewardship program modeled on existing programs in human health-care institutions and the 7 core elements of a successful hospital antimicrobial stewardship program, as defined by the CDC. The program includes comprehensive antimicrobial use guidelines, active environmental surveillance, and enhanced infection control procedures in The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, along with routine monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial prescribing practices and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common pathogens isolated from patients and the hospital environment. Finally, programs have been developed to educate clinicians, staff, and students on antimicrobial resistance and appropriate antimicrobial prescribing practices.

The antimicrobial stewardship program has been designed to help clinicians and students confidently make judicious antimicrobial use decisions and provide them with actionable steps that can help them act as strong stewards while providing the best care for their patients. This report describes our program and the process involved in developing it, with the intent that the program could serve as a potential model for other veterinary medical institutions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association